Russian nobility. For what merits it was possible to become the prince? Part 2
To the middle of the 19th century the relation in the country to the princely title which is, especially, personally granted by the emperor considerably changed. Now it was considered as an indicator of eminence, wealth and recognition of outstanding state and military merits.
It was promoted also by the fact that the title not just the prince, and the lightest prince was granted, as a rule. Sometimes the predicate of “grace“ became an additional award to earlier received just princely title. Natural Russian princes and representatives of other people approved in this advantage received the additional title “graces“ extremely seldom, than and began to differ from princes on grant.
Except the additional title “graces“ in relation to princes also more rare predicate “Excellency“ which could be granted along with princely advantage or later as an additional award was used. Representatives of families of Volkonsky, Dolgorukiy, Shakhovsky were the Russian illustrious princes.
It is curious that this predicate served origin of tradition at the address to all princes, and then and counts in Russia to use the Your Excellency form. Formally it violated provisions Tables of ranks in which forms of the address to noblemen only according to the occupied rank were provided.
So, to the persons which had ranks 1 - go and 2 - go classes, addressed “Your excellency“, 3 - go and 4 - go classes - “Your excellency“, 5 - go a class - “Your honor“, 6 - go - 8 - go classes - “Your high-nobleness“, 9 - go - 14 - go classes, and also the noblemen who do not have ranks and honourable citizens - “Your nobleness“. The prince who does not have a rank it was necessary to address “Your nobleness“, as well as the ordinary nobleman, and to being in the service - according to his rank. The same rule worked for counts, barons and carriers of other titles. Legally it was necessary to address only the lightest and illustrious princes “Your grace“ and “Your Excellency“.
Traditionally princely title was appropriated to men and transferred to posterity only on the man`s line. The wife of the prince automatically became the princess, and daughters - princesses. Marrying the princess received the husband`s title, but could continue to use and patrimonial, without the right of transfer to his children. There was only one exception when Nicholas I appropriated a title of the lightest princess to the teacher of his sisters countess Sh. K. Liven, and, she could give him to the children.
Especially it is worth stopping on the foreign princes who became the Russian citizen and the Russian noblemen who received a title of the prince from foreign monarchs. To use a title in Russia, they were obliged to get the highest permission. But also after that they were written down in 2 - y or 3 - y sections of the noble genealogical book with addition that they have a title of it is that the states, but not in more honourable 5 - y undressed where brought surnames of the Russian titled noblemen.
To be ranked as the Russian princes, and respectively and to acquire the right for introduction of a surname in 5 - y the section of the noble genealogical book, the special highest pleasure which was conferred a title not on all, having the foreign state was required.
It should be noted that in Russia there were always many applicants for a high princely title submitting various documents, both original, and counterfeit proving that their ancestors once had a similar title, but then his will of a case lost. Finally to resolve a situation, at the emperor Pavle the decision “for commemoration of those noble surnames which really come from childbirth princely though and have no this title was made, to leave in the coats of arms their crown and a cloak“, but not to restore a title. By the way, not only overseas, but also known Russian surnames, for example, Rzhev belonged to similar childbirth.
The increased prestige of a princely title in the second half of the 19th century it was once again noticeable shook mass recognition of the Georgian noblemen by princes. The event on scale was commensurable with what occurred in Alexey Mikhaylovich`s reign.
After inclusion of Georgia into structure of Russia there was a question of the Russian titles for the Georgian noblemen. The problem was in what in Georgia of the noble titles applying for equating to princely was a little - “mourav“, “eristav“, “tavada“, and, the last was subdivided into three categories. On the titles “mourav“ and “eristav“ of problems did not arise, they were unambiguously equated to princely since the beginning of the 18th century when the tsar Vakhtang with big suite of confidants moved to Russia.
And here from - for the title “tavade“ which in Georgia was carried by several hundreds of people in the middle of the 19th century even created the special commission. At first the offer, depending on categories of this title, to approve his owners in princely, count or baronial advantage was stated. But in 1850 decided to recognize 69 Georgian noble childbirth in princely advantage. It except several tens childbirth which were already recognized as princely earlier.
The situation strikingly reminded that that it developed in the 17th century, many new princes except a title and a small patrimonial ground somewhere in mountains behind soul had nothing.
In the 19th century many old and known Russian princely families were stopped in man`s generation, including Golenishchev - Kutuzova, Barclay - - Tolly, Razumovskiye, Osten - Sakena, Lopukhina, Vorontsova. For preservation of the well-known princely surnames the emperor sometimes made decisions on transfer of titles on the female line or the immediate family. But it became only personally. So, the title and a surname of princes Vorontsov were transferred the column M. And. To Shuvalov, Barclay - - Tolly - to A. P. Veymarn, Lopukhinykh - to N. P. Demidov.
At the beginning of the XX century the Russian genealogist S. V. Lyubimov made the reference book in which it included more than 200 princely childbirth existing in Russia by then or stopped in the second half of the 19th century. Among them only several tens childbirth became famous in a field of service to the Fatherland or on the present were rich and notable, i.e. were a part of the Russian aristocracy. But many princely surnames served as confirmation of a saying: “From dirt - yes in princes“ which was obviously born not from scratch.