Russian nobility. How in the country the highest estate was formed? Part 3
Having received the hereditary nobility on grant from the monarch, according to the served rank or when rewarding with an award, the person passed a peculiar registration - his surname was brought in the noble genealogical book of one of provinces. At the same time it automatically became the member of provincial noble community, acquiring the considerable rights as the representative of the highest estate in the state, but also certain duties to which had to follow.
Received the nobility wrote down in the first three sections of genealogical noble books which were kept with the middle of the 18th century in each province. Extremely seldom there were cases when along with the hereditary nobility of people received also a title of the baron, in this case his surname introduced in more honourable 5 - y the section of the book.
According to the law, in 1 - y the section of the genealogical book was written down those who from the Russian monarch and “other crowned heads in noble advantage the diploma, by the coat of arms and the press are granted“. And also those who had the proof of receiving the nobility in pre-Pertine time, but less than in hundred years, i.e. after 80 - x years of the 17th century.
Personal grants of the hereditary nobility were very rare. It should be noted that in Russia criteria and merits for which the emperor could build the specific person in noblemen never made a reservation, it always was a prerogative only of the monarch. Members of an imperial surname, the highest ranks of the empire, provincial noble communities, at best, could petition for it only.
In 2 - y the section of the genealogical book was written down those who received the hereditary nobility on military service. From Peter I officers in Russia were given a priority therefore from 1722 to 1845. assignment of the first Auber - an officer rank (fendrik, the ensign, a cornet, the warrant officer) automatically built the person in hereditary noblemen. Besides, the hereditary nobility was given also several unter - officer (non-commissioned officer`s) ranks which were carried to the 14th class Tables of ranks (a bayonet - the cadet in engineering troops, an unter - the officer Roty palace the grenadier, etc.) .
Since 1845, after the edition of the manifesto “About an Order of Acquisition of the Nobility by Service“, requirements significantly toughened. From now on and till 1856 on military service only ranks from the 8th class (the captain, the captain) gave the hereditary nobility. And since 1856 for receiving the hereditary nobility it was necessary to receive a rank of the 6th class (the colonel, the captain of the first rank). But also in these conditions the priority of officers as with receiving the first rank of the 14th class they began to receive the personal nobility now was kept. In some cases the personal nobility was received even by the military personnel who is not officers. So, at the end of the 19th century there was a period when ranks of the 14th class were appropriated to naval cadets of fleet. Since 1856 receiving the hereditary nobility through military service considerably became complicated, but the officer case remained completely noble.
In 3 - y the section of the genealogical book was written down those who received the hereditary nobility on civil service or in connection with rewarding with an award. From 1722 to 1845 for this purpose it was necessary to receive a rank of the 8th class (a collegiate asessor). From 1845 to 1856 - a rank of the 5th class (privy councilor), and since 1856 - a rank 4 classes (the valid privy councilor, in army corresponded to it the general - the major). Also the order of receiving the personal nobility changed if till 1845 the rank of the 14th class (the collegiate registrar), then from this year only a rank of the 9th class gave it on civil service (titular counselor). Other civil officials became personal honourable citizens. From now on inflow to the hereditary nobility of civil officials was sharply reduced, and the officials on the whole stopped being noble.
For officials who could not serve to the high rank there was a possibility of receiving the hereditary nobility in connection with rewarding with an award. Originally receiving any Russian award automatically built the person in hereditary noblemen. And as awards were given and for long service on civil service, many officials received the hereditary nobility on an award. Remember the well-known picture of Pavel Fedotov “The fresh gentleman“. By the way, on an award merchants and priests sometimes received the nobility.
In the middle of the 19th century the situation sharply changed, since 1845 the hereditary nobility began to give rewarding with awards without degrees, all degrees of the Orders of Saint George and sacred Vladimir, and also the first degrees of other Russian awards. From now on rewarding with the lowest degrees of the Orders of St. Anna and Saint Stanislav which officials could receive for long service gave only the personal nobility. And since 1900 began to give only the personal nobility and 4 - I am (lowest) degree of the Order of St. Vladimir.
From now on receiving the hereditary nobility on an award became a big rarity, a real opportunity to raise the social status remained at the officers awarded for personal feats with the Order of Saint George. Rewarding with awards in Russia was always carried out in strict accordance with a rank. So it developed that to receive the award granting the right for the hereditary nobility after 1900 the person, as a rule, already having rank too giving the hereditary nobility could.
In the XVIII-XIX centuries of border of the Russian Empire promptly extended. The relation to the people joining in structure of Russia always was very loyal. It was shown also that the new citizens entering earlier into the highest estates of the people received the Russian nobility, and, the part of them received it automatically, and some part - according to applications.
For new citizens did not feel sorry for titles. After inclusion of Georgia to Russia, all Georgians who had the local noble title “tavade“ which was divided into several degrees became princes. Only in 1850 the princely title was received by 69 Georgian noble childbirth, and these are several hundreds of people. For example, in Baratov` family in the first half of the 19th century 24 persons became princes. It is a lot of princely childbirth of a distance the “splinters“ of the former Golden Horde attached to Russia and Poland. For comparison - at the beginning of Peter I`s reign in Russia of the princely childbirth happening from grand and specific dukes was only 47, then 11 of them were stopped.
The nobility in Russia was not uniform. Some noble surnames rose to tops of the power and wealth, and some, including also titled, appeared practically in poverty. The curious case occurred in the middle of the 19th century when the impoverished last representative of once powerful Bohr princes conducting the sort from Rurik married the ordinary petty bourgeois in her native Borovsk. When reported on it on the emperor Nicholas I, he disposed to allocate to the princess 10 thousand rubles for acquisition that allowed a young family of a message quite provided life (by the standards of the provincial town). But the well-known princely sort stopped the existence.
By the beginning of the XX century of a position of the nobility pressed by the bourgeoisie which representatives generally were honourable citizens considerably reeled. Also inflow of new hereditary noblemen was considerably reduced. And in November, 1917 when the new power adopted the decree “About destruction of estates and civil ranks“, the nobility finally lost the special status in the Russian society.
Will continue a subject of the Russian nobility of article, devoted to the titled nobility: to princes, counts, barons and owners of titles, rare for Russia.