Who opened the first free kindergarten in Russia?
on October 25, 1872, 135 years ago, in the " newspaper; Tula provincial sheets “ there was a small announcement: “ With the permission of the trustee of the Moscow educational district I open on November 1 this year on Bolshaya Dvoryanskaya Street, in own house, kindergarten for children from 3 to 7 “. And signature “ Elizabeth Smidovich “. All who knew seven doctors Smidovichey clutched at the heads: what there kindergarten, if at eight children! Others shrugged shoulders supposedly probably, at the doctor of business go poorly, he, it seems, will take decent money for education of other people`s children!
What there was a surprise tulyan when the first “ gardener “ explained - it will not charge any fee for keeping of children. And all this invention is conceived only in order that kids developed more harmoniously especially as they will be learned new here. And to divide children on “ the “ and “ strangers “ it does not gather, will treat all with an identical measure. And for little pupils the best rooms - the dining room, the hall and a drawing room will be allocated - there was enough place and for childish sports, and for studies.
Elizabeth was dobra “ brood hen “ - in summer days pupils left in a garden, arranged holidays, froliced, engaged in statements of children`s performances. And Vikenti Smidovich did not remain indifferent to ideas of the spouse - he with own hand
manufactured the enormous model with mountains, the rivers, the sea, gulfs and islands. On the sea coast herds of tiny cows were grazed, kids could even touch them. It liked also simple performances, and the fact that children were very relaxed, and that they under supervision of adults studied hygiene bases. And in general under the leadership of Elizabeth Pavlovna classes were given in drawing, a molding from clay, to weaving, trained kids in the account, reading, outdoor games were surely held.
One of most “ bright “ pupils was 5 - summer Vikenti Vikentyevich to whom “ sciences “ came easily, it, feeling in kindergarten as at home, tried to stir up other pupils, involving them in games. It is a pity only that doctor Smidovich of time for children had a little: Vikenti Ignatyevich in November, 1864 opened establishment new, unprecedented hitherto - a free clinic for coming where vanished the most part of time. And if was at home, then most often worked in home chemical and bacteriological laboratories or accurately conducted meteorological supervision, worked hard statistically.
Several words about kindergartens in general and about Russian in particular. Beautiful, though strange, the name - “ kindergarten “ - the German teacher Friedrich Frebel thought up in 1837. He also created first-ever “ establishment for games and occupations of children of younger age “ in Blakenburge. However, it existed not for long, about two years, and was for some reason closed. But as the teacher explained then, he chose such name from - for the fact that, time children are considered as flowers of life, gardeners, have to grow up them from here and kindergarten … to
It is interesting that Frebel formulated the first principles of the real kindergarten. Main of them - not to prevent the child to become the person, but to help, developing all the best that the nature gave him. For this purpose the teacher created the developing set - “ Dara Frebelya “ on which “ gardeners “ learned kids: balls from wool of all flowers of a rainbow, wooden spheres, cubes, cylinders.
The St. Petersburg institution of Adelaide Semenovny Simonovich which she opened together with the husband in 1866 was the Russia`s first kindergarten. The payment for contents and education of children of 3 - 8 years were brought by wealthy parents. Simonovich herself thought out outdoor games, children were engaged in designing, and even the rodinovedeniye course was obligatory here. But also Adelaide Semenovna began to issue the special magazine “ Kindergarten “. But two years later the institution was closed.
A little more the kindergarten and at Smidovichey existed. It was open in 1872, and in 1875 pupils came to preschool institution last time. Obviously, the patience of job of Elizabeth Pavlovna was enough only for this short term. But, perhaps, the main reason became all - an acute shortage of means.
However, is one more circumstance: “ to soul “ kindergarten to Vikenti Vikentyevich 8 years were executed, and sent him to a gymnasium. But, perhaps, the main reason became all - an acute shortage of means.
Yes, many of you, dear readers, well know it. In 1884 Vikenti with a silver medal ended the Tula classical gymnasium and arrived on the historian - philological faculty of the St. Petersburg university upon termination of which was entitled the candidate. A bit later he was fond of ideas of populism. In 1888 arrived on medical faculty of Derptsky university, repeating a way of the father. In 1894 practiced several months in the homeland in Tula, and the same year as one of the best graduates of university was employed in the St. Petersburg Botkin hospital. to Most of readers it is familiar to
by the nature of other activity - literary, and on the pseudonym - Veresayev.
Range of its creative aspirations was very wide. Novels " are written to them; At the deadlock “ (1924) and “ Sisters “ (1933), documentary researches “ Pushkin in life “ (1926), “ Gogol in life “ (1933) and “ Pushkin`s Companions “ (1937). Veresayev made the numerous translations of monuments of Ancient Greek literature, among which “ Illiada “ (1949) and “ Odyssey “ (1953) Homer.
And everything began with a native home and kindergarten which was opened by his mother! So today, reflecting over that: “ To Give or not to send the child to kindergarten? “ one thousand times think: and whether it is worth refusing to the kid chance? Suddenly in this environment those sprouts of talent which in the future will yield a generous harvest will be put?