Whether not to glance in backwoods town of Kargopol?
Not so long ago in our " magazine; ShZh read Nadezhda Limonnikova`s article What does the village differ from the settlement in? Let`s glance in backwoods Russia . Also decided to tell about the present backwoods - the small ancient town of Kargopola, my small homeland where I was born where there passed my early childhood.
Scientists - toponimist consider that the name of the city comes from Finnish to a kargopuola - Karhupuoli - bear party . At an entrance to Museum of local lore to a time of my childhood there was an effigy of a huge bear on hinder legs probably to emphasize the name of the city. Many small rivers and lakes carry the Finnish names here: Lacha, Shalga, Tikhmanga, Vakhtoma. In the ancient time, before arrival on this earth of Novgorodians in the 12th century, lived the Finn here - the Ugrian tribes called at that time slightly or slightly beloglazy who rendered tribute to Veliky Novgorod.
Kargopol - the regional center of the Arkhangelsk region, is located on the left flat bank of the river of Onega, in 3 - x kilometers from its source from the Lake Lacha. Though the river Onega only begins the long way to the White Sea here, it is wide, deep and navigable. To Arkhangelsk - 427 km, on the road not too good, but nevertheless passable. To the nearest railway station Nyandoma - 86 km. Despite progress, on the fact that outside the 21st century, Kargopol and remains the small provincial town, real backwoods mislaid in the northern woods. The population for the last decades practically did not increase, now a little more than 11 thousand people live here. But at the city rich history. Here about ten ancient cathedrals and churches making its main sights remained. The fans of old times, tourists who are interested in North history with pleasure visit this ancient city.
In local Istoriko - the architectural museum date of the basis of Kargopol to you will call 1146. It is confirmed by the ancient record found incidentally and later archeological finds. In 1765 in Kargopole there was a terrible fire, the city burned out almost completely (only some stone churches escaped), at the same time also all richest archive burned down. And in September, 1785 Kargopol visited with inspection Gavrila Romanovich Derzhavin, (that that blessed A.S. Pushkina) being at that time the governor of the Olonets region. He - that also found in one of monasteries the manuscript in which it is said that the belozersky prince Vyacheslav, having broken slightly beloglazy based the fortress to which gave the name of the Cargo the field.
Here that is written down in the traveling diary of G. R. Derzhavin: ... The beginning of creation of this city antiquity from us hid that it from among the ancient cities, the manuscript found in monastic papers in which it pokazutsya proves this that inhabitants of these places attacked belozersky settlements on the run set fire to everything and devastated, and this until then proceeded, how long the prince Vyacheslav, having brought together troops, reflected attack behave in a queer way and, pobedya, drove it to coast of the White Sea. On the way back the nasheed the field convenient for rest called it karginy and made on it the table Russians made in the field volume a jail which signs are visible " also hitherto;. Studying of other documents on a campaign on slightly allowed to determine date of the probable basis of Kargopol - 1146.
To the middle of the 15th century Kargopolsky lands were a part of the Novgorod principality. Nearby, on the Lake Lacha, there passed Rostovo`s border - Suzdal, and after Moscow principalities so the city was often involved in any border conflicts. In the 15th century it was strengthened which - where the remains of an earth shaft, so-called " still remained; Valushki . In 1447 the princes Dmitry Shemyaka and Ivan Mozhaysky who were political opponents of the grand duke Vasily Temny fleeing Moscow find a shelter in the city. 30 years later, in 1478 Kargopol together with the Novgorod lands was attached to the Moscow state.
During Ivan the Terrible`s reign, in 1565, Kargopol is enlisted in 19 imperial cities which provided the maintenance of oprichnina. The English ambassador in Moscow in 1588 in the report included Kargopol in number 20 of the largest shopping centers of Russia, along with Moscow, Novgorod, Rostov Great, Vladimir, Pskov. Conveniently located on the trade ways from the center of Russia to Pomorze, the city played an important role in trade in salt, furs, the wood and its gifts: the well-known kargopolsky red saffron milk caps and soaked cowberry coils were carried to the princely yards to Moscow. Here annual fairs on which dealers and handicraftsmen from all North gathered were carried out. Traded in overseas cloth and bellows, printed calicoes and the kargopolsky scarfs embroidered by gold on a canvas, clay toys, fish, mushrooms and berries, birch bark and bast products - bast shoes, tuyeska, baskets.
In the Time of Troubles, in 1612 - 1614, the city was three times besieged polsko - the Lithuanian troops, but attackers did not achieve in this case any success, kargopolets were never given, and was granted to its inhabitants for merits before the Fatherland imperial Certificate of appreciation . In it it was said that citizens the Lithuanian people were beaten also many goroda and volosts cleared of thieves and preslavny victories showed " everywhere;.
From - for remoteness from the capital and severe climate, Kargopol was often used by the Moscow authorities as the place of the reference and conclusion of the opponents. Here the Tatar khans divorced wives, unlucky military leaders and other " referred; enemies of the people . Exactly here in 1587 by order of Boris Godunov the prince Andrey Shuysky was strangled. And in 1607 in kargopolsky fortress it was banished, and after pytan, it is mutilated, blinded and, at last, one of leaders of country revolt Ivan Isayevich Bolotnikov is secretly drowned in an ice-hole.
In 18 - m a century, when Peter I opened a window to Europe through the Baltic Sea, Kargopol began to lose the trade and strategic importance, and by 1776 he becomes the quiet district town of the Olonets province of the Novgorod province. After already mentioned catastrophic fire of 1765 the city was built almost up anew, according to the plan with a rectangular grid of streets, according to Catherine II`s decree. The monarchess allocated for restoration of the city the sum huge for those times - 10 thousand rubles. By the end of the 19th century only 2700 people lived in Kargopole, but there were 17 cathedrals and churches. The magnificent white stone temples towering over wooden houses remind of its former greatness also now.
The oldest not only in the city, but also in all Russian North is the five-domed Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ constructed in 1552 - 1562 on the New floor space. Cathedral lists almost all died during the fire of 1765, only the part of a fresco representing a picture of the Last Judgement remained. Near a cathedral there are two more churches. The five-domed St. John the Baptist Church constructed in 1751 - the highest in the city (35 m) and the biggest on internal volume. In 1802 one more temple - Vvedenskaya Church was right there built. And closes ensemble of the New floor space the stone two-story Cathedral belltower 61,5 m high built in 1772 - 1778 on the place burned down wooden, just at the expense of the funds allocated by the empress. In 2001 the belltower burned again, the lightning got into it. But in 2004 it was restored, and now tourists can rise by an observation deck to admire the city. It is a little aside, between the New bargaining and Valushkami, the huge white stone Voskresensky temple with five domes is located.
On the Old floor space (Red Army) there is Annunciation Church (1692) which differs in a variety of the sizes, forms and richness of finishing of windows and platbands. Any of more than 30 windows does not repeat another. In the neighbourhood graceful Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, 1680 of construction, now one of three operating is located. And one more, St. Nicholas Church, 1741 of construction, finishes ensemble of the Old bargaining. Slightly at some distance, at once behind bus station, there is Trinity Church. It was under construction since 1790 on 1802 and was five-dome, but after the fire of 1878 of 5 small domes were replaced with one, very big that gave to the temple special grandeur. In Trinity Church the exhibition of various crafts of kargopolsky handymen is placed. On the northern suburb of the city, on the Hill, there is one more church - Zosima and Savvatiya, 1814 - 1819. In it the " exhibition settles down; Ancient Kargopol`s Heritage .
So if the North and old times is not indifferent for you, go to this marvelous backwoods !