What do we know about the Cossack revolt of Kondratiya Bulavin?
On the night of October 20, 1707, exactly three centuries ago, on Don flashed revolt of Cossacks. Practically all Soviet textbooks paid to this event a lot of attention, underlining that this event was as if a prolog to the fact that nearly 70 years later in Russia there was other revolt - Yemelyan Pugachev. Kondratiya was called nearly Yemelyan`s forerunner. At the same time historians of communistic ideology the fact that revolt of Cossacks was caused more likely not by powerful pressing of the imperial power the citizens 300 years ago, and instability of a situation in those days did not worry at all.
But about everything one after another. Kondraty Bulavin was born allegedly in 1660 (some sources specify for 1671), but exact date of birth did not remain. His father was a stanitsa ataman (in the Soviet sources it was highlighted that the leader of Cossacks occurred from “ bottoms “ but it is, to put it mildly, a lie). Respectively, also lived in poverty Bulavina by no means not, in any case, did not feel need, and leader bents of young Kondratiya were shown in the childhood: it is much easier to order others if you are the ataman`s son. From here and such inherent in Bulavin already in mature years of quality, as healthy impudence, authoritativeness, aspiration to listen not always to the point of view, excellent from own.
Times were, frankly speaking, dashing. The central power was anxious, first of all, with Northern war with Swedes which began for Russians unsuccessfully, with defeat near Narva. However, later, by 1703 - 1704 while the main forces of the Swedish army led by Karl XII were at war in Poland, Peter I managed to lay the foundation of the Russian fleet, rearranged the forces and beat off many Russian cities in the north. And in 1705 Russians entered Poland to help the allies. And in 1707 about which there is a speech Karl made the decision to move military operations to the territory of Russia and began to prepare for invasion.
So far in Moscow and St. Petersburg made plans about what to oppose to the opponent, on the southern suburbs of the big country many local princelings and atamans felt big independence of the center and even more often began “ to bite “ monarchic bodies, trying to define where it is thin. In particular, in Ukraine absolutely the hetman Ivan Mazepa who dreamed felt independent and - Jure to issue full independence of Moskovia. He laid great hopes on the fact that freedom will manage to be returned by means of the Swedish bayonets and sabers.
But waiting for this help the hetman was not idle, and tried to revive rebellious spirit in the Don Cossacks, from time to time sending the instigators who called local atamans to Don, seizing the moment, to try to achieve bigger independence. And an occasion, as we know, to find it is always simple. In this case the first “ spark “ there was a salt question. Salt was " in those days; strategic “ raw materials, that is why Peter I declared production and sale of salt the state monopoly. Cossacks were forced to buy from the state “ white death “ but not to get it that is called it is free.
There was also a second match ready to kindle the fire. Not all Russian people dreamed to go to war with Swedes and not to appear “ zabrity “ they very willingly ran to Don. Saying “ From Don there is no delivery! “ seemed to people the firm law. Here they also arrived to riding villages as if water in a high water, dreaming to sit out. And there, either Petr will not become, or war in itself will resolve, or it will be possible to grow rich on the new place and to pay off from mobilization.
Both of these factors promoted that Bulavin headed several groups of especially poor and freaky Cossacks which fought some salt saltworks off the state. Peter I was forced to direct the retaliatory group under leadership of the prince Yury Dolgorukov numbering up to two thousand soldiers according to different data to Don. In the beginning “ to the imperial satrap “ it was succeeded to achieve progress: only in eight villages he managed to arrest and to violently deport deep into Russia about three thousand fugitives, but Mazepa`s instigators who began to wail in villages appeared in time here: “ Brothers, dokol we will suffer?! “.
The fire flashed quickly. Bulavin addressed Cossacks: “ Who with me to beat imperial voivodes? “. Persons interested appeared much. And further bulavinets made fast night transition to the Uryupinsk village and at daybreak pulled hard on the sleeping soldiers from Dolgorukov`s group. The Secha was terrible - Cossacks did not take any prisoner, having chopped up checkers of all and all. Did not regret also the prince …
But Bulavin understood that it is only insignificant success, and therefore distributed the appeal on the Cossack villages in which in a false manner assured future insurgents that “ boyars and Germans enter Cossacks into the Hellenic belief, burn down and execute in vain “. Someone pecked on this bait, but not so much how many Kondraty wanted. Moreover, the army ataman Lukyan Maximov at the first news of revolt and Dolgorukov`s death right there ordered to bring together army to beat the trouble-maker. He - that, unlike Bulavin, perfectly understood that he will not pass also short time as Peter I instead of died thousands of soldiers of the prince will send to Don in 20 - 30 times more. And then “ it will be combed “ already all Don, and not just Bulavin.
Kondratiya`s dreams to bring together efficient army broke against severe reality. Zavidya Maximov`s army, rebels mostly ran up. And Bulavin from the remains of the separate hundreds receded to Bakhmut, hoping to become stronger exactly here and to wait for the promised help from Mazepa, the Turkish sultan and the Zaporizhia Cossacks who permanently were in opposition to any power. So the winter of 1707 - 1708 on Don passed
rather quietly. And on spring, as well as Maximov assumed, Pyotr sent to pacify rebels at once 30 - thousand army. News that the brother of the killed prince Dolgorukov - Vasily orders it - at all did not delight Bulavin. He understood that as soon as the prince appears on Don, to it mercy will not be. It forced Kondratiya to intensify the actions. It and his closest assistants atamans the Ukrainian, Torn, Nekrasov and Naked did not lose hope to hire to themselves as much as possible dissatisfied. For this purpose Bulavin sent atamans to the steppe, and itself arrived to Sech.
As soon as quite numerous army (about 15 thousand sabers) was succeeded to bring together Bulavina, it right there moved to Cherkassk - the capital of Donskoy of the Cossacks. And here Maximov did not manage to repeat last year`s success: in - the first, there were spring field works, and in - the second, many did not believe that the bulavinsky army represents the true danger. As a result it was succeeded to collect only 8 thousand sabers.
It cost to many prosperous Cossacks life because the regular Cossack army obviously underestimated the fact that Bulavin had a fighting experience now. He applied the favourite tactics again, attacked Maximov at the most unexpected moment when that collected an army circle, fondly relying on the fact that Bulavin will honor the Cossack laws (conducting any military operations was forbidden at this time). As a result Maximov was bit and ran to Cherkassk. And afterwards on his shoulders bulavinets also rushed into the capital of army Don. They quickly occupied the city and used the most rough handling over opponents: having chopped off the heads to the ataman Lukyan Maximov with four foremen, having suffocated the fifth foreman Yefrem Petrov, having plundered and having destroyed the inhabitants who remained faithful to the debt proclaimed Bulavin the army ataman.
But, as they say, not for long music played. Soon on Don there was an army under Vasily Dolgorukov`s command. And Bulavin, on the contrary, unexpectedly divided the army into several groups which captured Beavers, Borisoglebsk, Kamyshin, Tsaritsyn. But it was the last success of rebels. Soon one of groups was broken, and prosperous Cossacks attacked meanwhile the village in which there was Bulavin. The house in which the independent army ataman feasted was surrounded, and all who were in it were destroyed. Bulavin was shot by Stepan Ananyin …
After Kondratiya`s death revolt began to decline. Finally bulavinsky mutiny was suppressed at the end of 1709. Not the last role in it was played also by full Victoria near Poltava when the people were convinced that their tsar not from those who allow to spit in the plate. And then, bulavinsky “ allies “ - Swedes, Mazepa and Turks, were busy with a zalizyvaniye of wounds. So the help had no place to wait …