For what it is necessary to know the blood type?
What we know about ourselves? Growth, weight, color of eyes and hair …
But if there is a tragedy, we instantly learn one more characteristic - a blood type. It is invariable during life, does not depend on a nationality, gender and age, is descended, represents a set of specific properties, individual for each of us.
The concept about blood types appeared at the beginning of the XX century thanks to Karl Landshteyner`s researches. In the researches conducted by the Austrian immunologist were availability of certain albumens ( of group anti-genes ) in plasma and a membrane of erythrocytes is revealed. Landshteyner divided us into three groups, and later the Czech colleague Yansky added also the fourth. At the moment it is studied and about 15 systems of blood types are offered: AB0 (all known: 1, 2, 3 and 4), Rh (a Rhesus factor - a factor), MN, Ss, Pp, Daffi, Lewis, Kidd, Lyutteran and others, the blood depending on specifics of properties. And Landshteyner in 1930 got the Nobel Prize for the opening.
And so, the substances emitted with immunologists are options of one gene. In a membrane of red blood bodies, erythrocytes, there can be agglyutinogena of A and B, and in antibody blood plasma - proteins agglutinins an and b. The paired combination of these specific proteins also defines one of four blood types.
The first (zero - 0) - does not contain an agglyutinogena (And, In), but contains both agglutinins.
Second (A) - contains a gene And yes opposite agglutinin - b.
Third (V) - has agglyutinogen In and, respectively, an antibody - a.
Fourth (AV) - contains only agglyutinogena (And yes In), but has no agglutinins.
Such apportion causes group incompatibility as at interaction of the proteins of the same name (for example, And +a, In +b) pasting of erythrocytes happens ( agglutination ). Then in the blood course there can be congestions of red little bodies in the form of lumps - blood clots that can bring to heavy (sometimes deadly) to complications. The agglutination reaction mechanism is also the cornerstone of compatibility of blood types: blood of people with the I group is universal, and people with the IV group can accept any . However in clinical practice blood transfusion is carried out only group in group. But also, also a number of additional obligatory researches - on a Rhesus factor - a factor, reactions to antibodies and others is conducted.
Sometimes on a blood type it is possible to assume or exclude paternity as belonging to a blood type is inherited. Options of manifestation of each of genes equal also do not depend from each other. Therefore this confirmation not completely reflects reality.
Therefore, for example, if parents have: one group A, another - B, as a result at the child can be any of four groups, even 0. Reliability has a paternity test (motherhood) in case both parents carriers 1 - y blood types - at the child are not present alternatives - 1 - I, and a point. But, if parents with 1 - y and 4 - y group respectively, then at children blood does not coincide with parents - or 2 - I, or 3 - I.
The concept about incompatibility of blood types of parents for the birth of the kid does not exist. The only complication - when at mother is the first blood type, and at the father any other, mother should make during pregnancy tests on group antibodies because in this case the conflict on a blood type is possible.
It should be noted that recently the factor of a blood type became popular in itself. Except doctors, also astrologers began to consider its. Though certain interrelations between health of the person and a blood type were established long ago.
The statistics is interesting. For example, most of all people with the first and second blood type - 30 - 40%, on one sources are in the lead one, on others - other group. From 10% to 20% it is given to the third group, and here 4 - y groups - it is less than 10% of representatives.
There is even a sexual compatibility on blood types. Also differences in character of people of different groups are defined. In Japan the popular belief is quite strong that the blood type defines the personality. It is possible even to face a question of a blood type at employment.
Nutritionists develop the diets depending on a blood factor. It is considered that blood types changed depending on habitat of the person, that is, initially all people had the first (0) blood type, they lived hunting and ate generally meat. When people began to lead a settled life of farmers, they began to eat a lot of vegetable food, and the second blood type appeared then. When tamed pets, began to eat milk, and population shift began, there was the third blood type. The fourth blood type as believe, meant the end of the period of migration and mixture of the second and third groups.
And still, speak, people of the first group are not harmed by alcohol! Generally, the knowledge of this factor can be useful very much and if it is necessary, to save your life.