Why the admiral Makarov urged to remember war?
“ The old man Behaves in a queer way, - subordinates laughed, - hung up the slogan " in an office; Remember war! “ fills up the management of reports about need to urgently strengthen Port - Artur and to prepare the Pacific fleet for war. To it from Kronstadt, is you see more visible “. They did not understand that to Makarov and actually “ more visible “. And only begun russko - the Japanese war confirmed full correctness of the admiral. Then it was also sent to the Port - Artur to save situation. But was already late.
Stepan Osipovich Makarov was born on December 27, 1848 in Nikolaev who became permeated with the smell of the sun and the sea in a family of the hereditary soldier. There were in Russia also such dynasties. Both of his grandfathers were soldiers, and the father only for half a year till the birth of the son toadied in ensigns - an event for those times rare.
The way to an officer rank was for Makarov long and difficult. It began in 1858. in Nikolaevsk sea school which trained conductors of the case of navigators (a rank the warrant officer who is approximately corresponding to a modern rank). Only in May, 1869 Makarov became an officer. It is remarkable that before he managed to serve by 11 ships and to take part in several distant sea campaigns.
The first officer swimming by the armored boat “ Mermaid “ ended tragicly. She ran on a reef, and only thanks to happy combination of circumstances it managed to be grounded. Behind a special case the young warrant officer saw a problem of all fleet - unpreparedness of the ships and crews to actions at damage of the case. Makarov sat down for books, carried out difficult calculations. The work devoted to fight for floodability of the ship became result. In sea use the new term " appeared; Makarov`s plaster “. Became interested in ways of seal of holes abroad, and sent Makarov to show the invention on the World Fair to Vienna.
From the beginning russko - the Turkish war Stepan Osipovich achieved transfer to the Black Sea fleet by the commander of the steamship “ Grand duke Konstantin “ become base of mine boats. In April, 1877 “ Konstantin “ came for search of the opponent. Steam boats on which nose on a pole mines fastened were its weapon. To approach under fire the Turkish ships, to blow up them and at the same time to manage to remain safe to ivernutsya back - not only enormous courage, but also the perfected naval skill for this purpose was required. All this " team; Konstantin “ showed fully. Two battleships are blown up, about ten cargo vessels are sunk. In December at Batuma Makarov for the first time in the world applied torpedoes, having sunk Turkish storozhevik “ Intibakh “.
War Makarov finished the captain of the II rank, the gentleman of several fighting awards, including - Saint Georgy 4 degrees, and the gold " weapon; For bravery “. To secular measures of his pit develops successfully: it is granted in a secular rank a wing - the aide-de-camp, ranked as Guards crew, appointed the commander of group minonosok, designate it command of the imperial " yacht; Livadiya “. But the hero of the Turkish war Skobelev suggests it to head sea providing Gasped - Tekinsky military expedition, and Makarov throws secular St. Petersburg and goes to the Caspian Sea.
Under its team more than one hundred low-tonnage vessels and a wide range of tasks - from the organization of transportations before creation of ports and bases on coast of the Caspian Sea. Makarov coped with new duties brilliantly. The fact that at parting Skobelev exchanged with it the Orders of Saint George demonstrates to its big contribution to success of military expedition.
In October, 1881 Makarov appeared in Constantinople where it was appointed the commander of the Russian ship - a statsioner “ Taman “. Appointment was with diplomatic implication - in the last war Makarov put voyenno - to naval forces of Turkey an essential loss. Official duties for the commander of a statsioner were not burdensome were reduced to diplomatic mission more. Not got used to do nothing, Stepan Osipovich was engaged in studying of currents in the Bosphorus Strait. The result of researches became scientific sensation - in the passage at various levels two opposite currents: top of the Black Sea, and lower of Marble. In case of new war its opening allowed to carry out a fast and effective mining of Bosphorus. Award to it by Academy of Sciences of a prestigious award of the metropolitan Makari became recognition of purely scientific merit of the seaman.
In 1885 Makarov became the commander of a frigate “ Hero “ preparing for global cruise. Plowed nearly three years “ Hero “ ocean open spaces, and all this time numerous scientific researches were conducted. The two-volume work " became result; Hero “ and Pacific Ocean “ highly appreciated in scientific community. The academy of Sciences marked out him the Makaryevsky award, and the Russian geographical society awarded the author with a gold medal.
Soon after circumnavigation counter - the admiral Makarov was appointed the chief inspector of sea artillery. In three years, despite slowness of naval bureaucracy, he managed to make much for improvement of ship artillery. The invention " became the main outcome of its work; Makarov`s caps “ which considerably increased efficiency of shells on punching of armor.
In November, 1894 Makarov accepted command of a squadron on the Pacific Ocean. Here he understood that new technical capabilities of the ships obviously do not correspond to established practices of their fighting application. The capital work " became a result of thoughts of the admiral; Reasonings concerning sea tactics “ for many years remaining the only generalizing work such in Russia. The book was translated at once into many foreign languages. And reprinting of the book in 1943 became the best confirmation that Makarov`s ideas do not grow old over time.
In December, 1899 vice-the admiral Makarov was appointed the chief commander of the Kronstadt port and the military city governor which became the capital of the Russian fleet. The abundance of duties could not distract it from scientific researches. On the " ice breaker constructed under its control; Yermak “ he investigated northern islands, tried to break through to a pole. Thanks to its support on fleet introduction of the radio invented by Popov began.
War with Japan stirred up all Russia. Failures of the Russian fleet on the Pacific Ocean caused general opinion that the fighting naval commander has to direct warring fleet. And Makarov was the only person who really could change situation in sea war. In February, 1904 he headed fleet on the Pacific Ocean which began active and successful military operations. The initiative in sea war obviously passed to Makarov. Unfortunately, history to it released very short term. Already on March 31 battleship “ Petropavlovsk “ on which the admiral put out to sea, was blown up on a mine. At 9 hours 39 minutes over Makarov lead waters of the Pacific Ocean were closed. Loss was irreplaceable and noticeably affected the course of sea war.
Memory of such people does not grow old. All who are in Kronstadt involuntarily pay attention to the monument decorating a main square “ cities of seamen “. On a high pedestal as on the ship bridge, there is a broad-shouldered admiral. The blinked eyes tensely peer at a sea distance, wind inflates a broad beard and floors tightly of the clasped overcoat. On a pedestal the short and capacious slogan to which the admiral followed all life, - “ Remember war “.