What is “ Seven wonders of the world “? Artemis`s temple in the Hilt of
Around existence of this wonder of the world, as well as around existence of other wonders of the world, there was for a long time a confusion and therefore it is not absolutely clear what It is necessary to tell about. We speak about Artemis Efesskaya`s Temple (in some sources it is called still - Artemision).
I will begin, perhaps, with the fact that Artemis`s Temple was under construction repeatedly. It was located in the city the Hilt (in Ancient Greece, nowadays it is the territory of Turkey). Former, wooden temples fell into decay, burned down or perished from earthquakes frequent here and therefore in the middle of the 6th century B.C. it was decided to construct, without feeling sorry for means and time, the magnificent dwelling for the goddess - the patroness Artemis. Famous Hersifron`s project was recognized as the best. That suggested to build the temple of marble, and by the rare then principle of an Ionic dipter, that is to surround it with two rows of marble columns. Ingenious was his idea to build the temple on a bog to provide fire resistance. That under the weight the marble colossus did not plunge into the unsteady damp earth, the deep ditch which was filled with mix of charcoal and wool - a pillow thickness in several meters was dug. This pillow also really equaled hopes of the architect and provided durability to the temple.
On construction of the temple the uncountable number of years how many precisely, we do not know left, we know only that Hersifron did not live up to end of the temple. After his premature death of function of the chief architect passed to his son Metagen and when also that died, the temple was completed by Peonit and Demetry. The temple was finished approximately in 450 B.C.
The sanctuary was 110 meters long and 55 meters wide. It was enclosed with a double colonnade from 127 columns, height of some of them reached 18 meters. The duo-pitch roof was made of marble slabs too, and on its corners four huge marble bulls took place. From within the temple was revetted with marble slabs, and in its center there was a statue 15 meters high of Artemis. The basis of a statue was wooden, but from above it was entirely covered with gold jewelry and jewelry. The pediment of the temple which top was spaced from the earth on 25 meters was magnificently decorated with majestic sculptural composition.
Artemis Efesskaya`s temple was very known in due time. People from all Greece came here to pray, the famous poets devoted to the goddess verses. But the temple was often used and as bank - rich people of antiquity stored the savings in it (that is money and jewelry). So, for example, the famous historian Xenophon very famous in those days (the pupil of not less famous Ancient Greek philosopher Socrates) before a campaign to Persia reported to storage to the temple a large sum of money.
But Artemis Efesskaya`s temple is well-known not for it for us. The matter is that on July 21, 356 B.C. this temple which was read by all Greeks was burned by the Fame-thirsty person. (By the way, claim that the event it took place on the same day when also famous Alexander of Macedon, future conqueror of Asia was born). The fame-thirsty person dreamed to become famous and such anti-glory decided to leave the mark for ages. This event shook Greeks. And they executed the Fame-thirsty person. And in order that the name of the Fame-thirsty person did not remain in the history, it was decided to be forgotten. But among themselves people said that lords of Greece decided to betray a name of the person who set fire to the temple, to oblivion, but everyone at the same time asked how called that person.
led Such actions to the return result - the name of the Fame-thirsty person was entered in history of Ancient Greece forever.
Instead of the burned temple the new temple - the exact copy of that which was killed in fire was built. This temple was also called one of wonders of the world. New temple “ lived “ it is a lot more years - in 263 our era it was destroyed and plundered so-called Gotha.
was Then 391 years old when the Roman emperor Theodosius I forbade (that is closed) all pagan temples. The matter is that Greece then was a part of the Roman Empire where people began to believe in Jesus Christ. Therefore all other gods were forbidden. People who believed in other Gods began to be called pagans. So Artemis Efesskaya`s temple became the pagan temple.
But those who worshipped Artemis continued by it to pray in this temple nearly two hundred more years, so far, at last, there was no earthquake, and the temple finally was not destroyed. And finished the “ life “ the magnificent temple of antiquity - Artemis Efesskaya`s temple.
The English archeologist Wood managed to find real traces of existence of this wonder of the world. On October 31, 1869 he found two columns on which the temple roof fastened. The base of the temple was opened only in our century, and under it also traces of the temple burned by the Fame-thirsty person were found.