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What did fantasts cannot provide? Underwater robots...

Steel ikhtiandra Can only be surprised to

to what the fantasy sometimes is short-sighted. Well, let Jules Verne also did not supply the captain Nemo with iron servants, still their time did not come. But at the beginning of the twentieth century Carel Capek invented the word " robot; and also colourfully represented war with reasonable underwater inhabitants - salamanders. Approximately at the same time Alexander Belyaev created the person - an amphibian.

But none of fantasts guessed to unite these ideas and to start robots under water. Known robotics Isaac Asimov, Arthur Clark writing both about diving, and about robots. Even at Ivan Efremov in its enchanting Fogs Andromedy the robot - the intelligence agent, having got into the ocean, it was helpless, sank into a chasm without trace.

Only in the late fifties there were first descriptions of the automatic underwater laboratories, independent intelligence agents and torpedoes which are independently chasing the purpose. Still slightly - slightly, and underwater robots would be created earlier, than described in a fantasy.

The first progress

B 1986 the Soviet nuclear submarine K - 219 sank. It was necessary to survey whether the reactor is destroyed. Depth is mad, more than five kilometers. Neither divers, nor submarines can fall by such depth. Unless bathyscaphes. But all the same, depths dangerous. Why to risk people if the robot can get along with case?

One of the first underwater robots - the automatic uninhabited submersible of a series L - 2 - did not bring. It only could carry out an objective - to find and to carefully survey the sunk boat.

In three years this device found and surveyed an underwater nuclear rocket carrier Komsomol member sunk in the Norwegian Sea at a depth of one and a half thousand meters. The clever car could behave, being conformed with a concrete situation, for example, independently bypassed obstacles. The device continuously transferred the obtained information to a surface on the hydroacoustic channel.

Time went, and now the far descendants of this device developed at the same institute became so autonomous that practically do not need intervention of the person in the activity.

You judge: having swum for a while in ocean chasms, the robot itself rises to a surface and itself renews energy in accumulators, having exposed outside solar batteries. At the same time it merges the obtained information on the space satellite, specifying the coordinates at the same time. And again goes to depth.

Boats - bespilotka

Abnormally - rescue operations - rather incidental work for clever cars. Not every day the ships sink. But robots have also a continuous business. What are they engaged in Poseidon`s possession in? First of all, as it was already mentioned, stick the iron nose there where the person does not have the course.

How, for example, people can investigate the beginning eruption of an underwater volcano if on a surface still nothing is noticeable? Until the research ship approaches a scene of action, eruption can fade. And it is possible to stand on an anchor over the volcano which is at a multikilometer depth not always. The underwater police dogs who are continuously plying over oceanic ridges move towards temperature increase and a turbidity of water, continuously selecting tests and making their analysis, photographing changes of a relief of a bottom.

But it is a special case. Problems of robots are much wider. Continuous monitoring of temperature, salinity and impurity of water, studying of undercurrents, calculation of biomass of the population of the ocean and many, many other tasks. Robots significantly simplify problems of oceanologic researches, investigations of minerals, problems of seismic protection, navigation of vessels.

For the solution of objectives of robots supply a photo - and the video equipment, survey sonars, the geophysical equipment (magnetometers, acoustic profilographs, gravity meters). Robots can to sniff up trace impurity of chemicals in water to watch migration of fishes, to catch and record voices of marine animals and noise of vessels.