Whether there is extreme depth?
the Sea - dangerous elements, and as well as possible it checks the person for durability. And, alas, sometimes breaks not the weakest. The underwater diver is trapped by thousands of different dangers, and the main of them - a deep water rather big pressure at a depth.
Each ten meters of depth increase pressure upon 1 kilogram upon each square centimeter of a body of the person. Were afraid only earlier of the fact that the high pressure will crush the swimmer, will break to it edges. But so far people of such depths did not reach. The gases dissolved in blood of the person became the main obstacle.
Chemical reactions in an organism at an elevated pressure proceed a little differently, than in normal conditions. The nitrogen which is contained in air which the aquanaut breathes has the intoxicating, narkotiziruyushchy effect, the slightest impurity of carbon monoxide cause a dejectedness, drowsiness. Oxygen - and that is harmful in pure form. Other danger - a lacunar illness. At rise gases in blood boil as champagne, and vessels cork.
Where there passes the deep limit? It was determined by many human lives. The first among scuba divers the associate Cousteau Maurice Fargue died. In 1947 Cousteau`s group investigated consequences of deep intoxication, and for this purpose made a number of immersions on big depths.
In the first day of tests by the first for depth Cousteau left. It overcame influence of nitrogen and reached depth of 90 m what undersigned on the level attached to a cable for. Best of all Fargue had nitric poisoning to this day. Therefore next day it also left the first on depth. Having reached 117 m, he on the way back fainted and died.
But there is also other way of penetration into ultraboundary depths - without aqualung, on one sip of air taken on a surface. So traditionally all seekers of pearls dive. In this case it is not necessary to be afraid of either nitric intoxication, or a lacunar illness. But it is necessary to be afraid of shortage of air.
It would seem, such way of diving - a step backwards. But there were people who proved that it not absolutely so. It is possible to oxygenate previously an organism, and it is possible to train it and to reconstruct so that it consumed oxygen less as it is done when diving cetacea.
Frenchman Jacques Mayol nicknamed " became the first person who dealt with this problem; the person - a dolphin “. Generally he was born in Shanghai where his father worked, but, eventually, got to France. However it since the childhood had an opportunity to watch work of divers.
In 1960 it surpassed champions of that time - Americans, having dived on a breath delay on depth of 35 meters. Alas, its record was broken the same year by the Sicilian Enzo Maiorca who dived on 45 meters. Fascinating rivalry in which Mayol could be ahead of Maiorca only in eight years began.
Meter behind meter, alternately being ahead of each other, they win depth. 70, 74, 76, 87 and, at last, 92 meters then Mayol remains the individual winner.
In November, 1976 he storms a hundred-meter race. If to look in the field of stadium, it so is not enough, - some run it quicker, than in 10 seconds. But here it is necessary to pay for each meter.
In October, 1983 depth of 105 meters obeyed to Mayol. Do not think that everything is so simple, took and dived. Years of trainings, tens, hundreds of immersions, constant medical control. Before immersion 15 - minute hyperventilation of lungs on yogi system. On depth it was always accompanied by dozens of skilled scuba divers.
Abilities struck it physicians. It is enough to tell that at immersion its pulse went down to 20 beats per minute against usual 64. The heart adapted to shortage of oxygen fought less often. It Mayol was created by the exhausting work on itself.
Well and what all this, eventually, ended with? In December, 2001 Jacques Mayol, a diving legend, committed suicide, being in a condition of the most severe depression. Probably, not everything is smooth deeply.
Mayol`s achievements are blocked long ago. Hundreds of divers tried to surpass them, but the few managed to make it. It is much more unlucky fans to risk died on this way.
Quite recently in attempt to block achievement of the previous champion, American Thani Stritter, the brave Frenchwoman Audret Mestr died. In training attempt it managed to reach depth of 170 m. But during official record attempt to take a boundary of 171 m it died on the way back. On the basis of its previous training immersion the International association of a freediving recognized it 170 - a meter record posthumously.
Only in a week after Audret`s death on pobity a record Thani Stritter went other Frenchman, Loikk Leferm. And it managed it. Every year it exceeded the previous achievement. What waits for us this year? And whether there is extreme depth whether there is a courage limit?