Whether the truth that the first Soviet ballistic missiles were “ German “?
on October 18, 1947, 60 years ago, from Kapustin Yar firing range start of the ballistic missile of distant action, the first in the history of the USSR, was made. Product “ T “ as it was called by designers, 206,7 km flew by, but firing did not differ in accuracy: the rocket deviated on 30 km the set direction to the left. And second start, this time products “ N “ was unsuccessful too. But even the negative result bears in itself a positive charge: the designer Sergey Korolev was convinced once again in what he pluses and minuses of these rockets, and at once after these two starts started creation of the first domestic rocket P - 1 which flew up from the same ground nearly a year later, on October 10.
However, in my lips the description of this event sounds a little dryishly, actually it was a tremendous show. And therefore it is better to provide the story of one of eyewitnesses: “ People as if were dumbfounded, struck with power of a fiery stream. Squall of a thunder and fire! A strangeness of new feelings from the sound of the working engine which is tearing apart air, the blinding flame, dense puffs and dust from a gas stream - all this nobody ever saw and could assume that it can be! Power and rebelliousness was felt! “.
On tests of the rocket it was right there reported on heads of the country. And secret “ Punchinello “ stopped being secret soon: across Moscow even people expert in rocket production it is no more at all, than a mole in Earth globe, hotly discussed news and were sure that failure happened only from - for the fact that the rocket was under construction of the German details.
In any case details! At the scientific research institute experimental plant - 88 in Podlipkakh did not hide: it set the task “ to collect “ the first Soviet ballistic missile from 10 FAU - 2. And in it there was nothing reprehensible - in aspiration to overtake the USA all means were good. By the way, Americans in Germany fell into an advantageous position: they captured the chief designer and the developer of the German rocketry Verner von Braun and together with it about 700 main German experts, and Russians were in time “ to take “ only those who did not manage to get away. Most often it were engineers as like to speak in theater, “ second plan “. But our ingenious designers did not concede to Germans in anything.
By the way, now it is difficult to believe in it, but almost all war future “ commodore “ a space age Sergey Pavlovich Korolev spent in prison. On September 27, 1938 he was condemned on 10 years of imprisonment in ispravitelno - labor camps of a high security, and sent to Kolyma. However, judiciousness prevailed, and Korolev was sent to design office, continuing to remain the convict. And only on July 27, 1944 it was ahead of schedule released.
And at the end of September, 1945 Sergey Pavlovich was sent to Germany to one of the plants which were letting out FAU - 2. On its base the institute at which several hundreds of Soviet experts and about one thousand German who were brought together from all Germany worked was also created and dragged from the American zone of occupation. By the way, in 1944 in the USSR engineering crews from specialists of the aviation industry to whom urgently gave the officer ranks and sent to Germany were created that together with the coming troops to provide capture, preservation and protection from destruction of the German rocketry.
Today any more not a secret that the first rocket not only was assembled from the German rockets, but also in the territory of Germany. And in Podlipkakh it only “ it was licked into shape “. But in that is that we and we differ from Americans - ability to collect a miracle practically from nothing. Americans, having captured at Germans about 100 FAU rockets - 2, “ led up “ them longer, and at us in 1948 the rocket on the materials was assembled. In particular, the engine was not German, and ours - ZhRD RD - 100, made in experimental design bureau - 456 under the leadership of Valentin Glushko.
And all on the ground passed 10 tests of the ballistic missile of distant action. Height of 86 km and range of 274 km was during this time reached, accuracy is considerably corrected. And, above all, Sergey Pavlovich Korolev in practice was convinced of what needs to be made in order that the rocket was “ hardy “.
A bit later tests with animals began. On July 22, 1951 the first geophysical missile B - 1B with dogs onboard on height of 101 km was launched. Dezik and the Gipsy became the first passengers. Further heights of raising of animals reached 512 km. In total on Kapustin Yar firing range 48 dogs, many of them - on two - three times, and a dog Brave - four rose by suborbital heights.
And only after it came “ era “ Belka and Strelka. And there and till Yury Gagarin`s era was no distance.
It is necessary to add that only in 10 years after the first test of the ballistic missile (it is very short term) from the fourth start the intercontinental ballistic missile created by Korolev flew by 8 thousand kilometers, bearing in itself the nuclear charge equivalent to 3,5 million tons (the bomb in 20 kilotons was dropped on Hiroshima). And already on August 27 TASS was authorized to declare that in the USSR the intercontinental rocket capable to strike every spot on the globe is created.
But it is already other history …