What prisoner could subordinate to himself prison guards of the Peter and Paul Fortress?
In December, 1881 happened in the Peter and Paul Fortress an unknown event - arrest of 68 gendarmes serving in the Alekseevsky ravelin which was used for the conclusion of especially dangerous state criminals. When reported on an event on Alexander III, he the trembled hand traced on the report: “ More shameful business for military team and its administration, I think, did not happen still “.
Indignation of the emperor was sincere and quite reasonable. Within several years the state criminal who had to contain in a ravelin in the conditions of exclusive severity practically subordinated himself part of prison policemen and with their help not only kept in contact with other prisoners of a ravelin and executive committee “ National will “ but also prepared escape.
In court which found 19 gendarmes guilty of a high treason and 24 more - in non-compliance with special duties of guard duty, the name of the mysterious prisoner was not told, it was designated as “ prisoner No. 5 “.
This mysterious prisoner of the Alekseevsky ravelin was the modest teacher of parish school, he is an anarchist and one of heads of the revolutionary organization “ National punishment “ Sergey Nechayev.
“ National punishment “ it was created 60 at the end - x years of the 19th century mainly from students of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The organization stood on the anarchist positions close to Bakunin`s ideas, her leaders considered that “ to create - not our business, and others, for us following “. Nothing serious in political struggle, except carrying out rough student`s meetings on which plans of the " organization were discussed; national rustic revolution “ and distribution of leaflets, nechayevets did not manage to make. But at the initiative of Nechayev they killed the student Ivanov suspected of change.
In 1871 84 anarchists, almost all structure of the organization, appeared on a dock. They were accused of creation of the community setting as the purpose overthrow of the existing system, the correspondence insult of the emperor and antigovernment promotion. The court was fast and quickly determined by it various measures of punishment, up to 15 years of penal servitude by that who was involved in murder. Nechayev on a dock was not. Before arrests he managed to leave to Geneva, and its business was allocated in separate production.
Switzerland agreed to give Nechayev, but with a condition that he was judged not as political and as the criminal - the accomplice of murder. At the end of December, 1872 the court which sentenced the organizer " began; National punishment “ by 20 years of penal servitude. But on penal servitude it did not get. The emperor wrote the instructions on the gendarme report on carrying out procedure of civil execution of Nechayev “ … to imprison him forever in fortress “ and fatly emphasized the word “ forever “. On January 28, 1873 doors of a solitary confinement of the Alekseevsky ravelin were closed behind Nechayev.
Feature of contents in a ravelin, except usual prison strogost, was the fact that the prisoner never met other prisoners, had no communication with will and did not know where it is. Originally Nechayev in a chamber was given books and writing accessories. He could write articles, sketches and even novels about student circles and life to emigrations. In 1876, after the address of the prisoner to Alexander II with the letter which contained reproaches in non-compliance “ imperial word “ given to the government of Switzerland, Nechayev of books and writing-materials was deprived. Everything that the prisoner managed to write in three years of stay in the single, was destroyed.
The prisoner deprived of writing-materials resorted to an original way of a protest, began to scratch addresses to the emperor on a chamber wall, and then went on hunger strike. As a result began to give it some books, but writing-materials did not return. And then the prisoner decided to act through policemen.
Instructions of the Peter and Paul Fortress forbade policemen any communication with prisoners, but Nechayev could come into contact with sentries, having caused them on direct talks. As it managed to incline gendarmes to the active help - about the present days remains a riddle. At first he through them established the intercourses with the prisoner Mirsky shooting at the chief of gendarmes Drenteln then with Shiryaev passing on process 16 - ti terrorists. Shiryaev told him addresses of the revolutionaries who bailed. Nechayev through policemen adjusted with them correspondence and even began to get fresh numbers “ National will “. In letters options of its escape were seriously discussed, but decided to postpone active preparation for it temporarily as all forces of executive committee “ National will “ during this period were directed to preparation of attempt at Alexander II.
Curiously, but any of policemen was not a traitor, and several tens were involved them. His conclusion fellow Mirsky who decided to receive cooperation with the commandant of fortress eases in detention regime gave Nechayev. The juicy scandal burst, not only the gendarmes guarding the prisoner suffered. The inspector of a ravelin was sent into exile to the Arkhangelsk province, and his assistant for 8 months put behind bars.
Nechayev was transferred to other room, the mode of its contents was considerably toughened. In half a year he died. Perhaps, to it “ helped “ to die, but it already from area of guesses.
It should be noted that “ thanking “ Dostoyevsky wrote to Nechayev the novel “ Demons “ and K. Marx and F. Engels, having read his article “ Main bases of future social order “ entered the term “ barracks communism “.