What birthday was celebrated by the sergeant Pavlov, defending the House in Stalingrad?
on October 17, 1917, 90 years ago, in a usual country family in the village Krestovaya of the present Novgorod region the boy who received a name of Yaks was born. Several days later in Russia there was a revolution that could not but be reflected in destiny of the boy. It had an opportunity to study, but in practice did not manage to check the knowledge as practically right after leaving school received the agenda.
It happened in 1938 when Yakov, in three years prior to the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, became the fighter of Red Army. In the summer of 1941 the lance sergeant Pavlov accepted the first battle near the city of Kovel. Was a commander of machine-gun office, then the tipper-of of the tool. Together with parts receded far inland, yet it did not appear in Stalingrad. Got to a household troop, than very much was proud.
On the night of September 27, 1942 the battalion commander Alexey Zhukov ordered to the commander of a company senior lieutenant I. Naumov to carry out developing attack in the only thing the four-storeyed house of the regional consumer union which escaped from bombardments down the street Penza, 61. Komrota sent to the house group of four intelligence agents who were ordered guards by the sergeant Yakov Pavlov, with a task to be fixed in it and not to allow breakthrough of the German troops to the Volga River near the square on January 9 (nowadays Lenin Square).
When several years later from Pavlov`s House molded a legend, was “ it is added “ that Pavlov fought the house off Hitlerites. At the same time the number of fascists it is modestly held back. Most likely, Germans just did not manage to accustom to this house and too sent intelligence agents to learn a situation. And ours approached a bit later. In any case, in Yakov Pavlovich`s memoirs it is directly indicated that Germans sat in two apartments at the second entrance on the first floor. Our four rushed into apartments, threw to rooms on three “ pineapples “ and after the smoke from explosions dissipated, discharged in space of apartments on a horn of automatic machines. And at the same time only three Hitlerites were killed, and finished three more wounded how they tried to get out of the building.
As the Hitlerites who are in 200 - 300 meters from the house, in the dark, could not establish strength of attackers, they all night long bombed and fired at the house, but did not do any harm to our intelligence agents. And exactly before firing Pavlov found in one of cellars goodness knows where from there of the undertaken saninstruktor of Kalinin, and sent it to a battalion staff that that transferred a situation in the house. But that managed to break through to the only days later.
And here the commander of a regiment of guard colonel Elin, having learned that the commander of a company sent only four fighters, bawled Alexey Zhukov uniform out, having sadly sighed: “ They, probably, already everything died, it was necessary to send more “. And here into the cellar brought Kalinin which transferred to the battalion commander a note from Pavlov. In the same night the reinforcement was sent to the house to the area of 9 January, and, above all - connection with the commander of a company is established, the cable was stretched by operators.
The platoon which arrived to the house guards the lieutenant Ivan Afanasyev ordered. Also it was entrusted to it to direct defense. It was difficult to present that in a fighting situation the sergeant ordered the lieutenant especially as defending were not “ are torn off “ from command, by and large instructions were given by Zhukov and Naumov. But history was become for some reason not by Ivan Afanasyev (who remembers him?) namely Yakov Pavlov. Why?
Here everything, most likely, lies in the area of ideology. In - ordered the first, first group all - Pavlov, and a rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union were appropriated to the first group forcing the river, which rushed on height, took fascist entrenchments etc. And, in - the second, it is more convenient to lift patriotic spirit of the Soviet soldiers everything was - the sergeant. That also other junior commanders showed initiative and ability to take the responsibility in fight that they did not feel dickey when, for example, officers die. And the lieutenant should already order!
But it does not mean at all that Pavlov did not show courage. He was at war on an equal basis with all, and even a little better, at least because, unlike some fighters, was the skilled soldier who had behind shoulders three years of service before war and one year of participation in military operations. And, naturally, it was an example for soldiers because was with them as if on one step.
It is possible to discredit one more myth. In all textbooks it is written that the house was defended by 24 guardsmen. Actually fighting structure defending constantly was updated, wounded sent to the back (though what the back there if to Germans no distance). According to the most conservative estimates, defending there were about three tens.
Fascists made tens of attempts to beat out heroes from the house, but it is vain. How they could escape in this hell? In many respects thanks to the fact that guardsmen had spare positions. In front of the house there was a cemented gasoline storage to which dug the underpass. One more convenient position was equipped behind the house, meters in thirty where there was a hatch of a water tunnel where too the underpass was dug. As soon as Hitlerites opened fire at the house, on posts remained only on the duty, and all others went to shelters. Firing stopped, and all not numerous garrison was in the house again, again mowed the friyets trying to attack our positions.
58 days and kept nights brave Soviet soldiers. They left the building on November 24 when the regiment turned into counterattack. As it is easy to guess, 25 - the anniversary Yakov Pavlov met the in the house. But on how he celebrated anniversary, neither Pavlov, nor his fighting friends focused attention.
It is necessary to add that the sergeant Pavlov was entitled the Hero of the Soviet Union of guard after May victorious salute, on June 27, 1945. Together with “ asterisk “ it was handed also lieutenant shoulder straps. The next year Yakov Fedotovich left ranks of army. Then graduated from the Higher party school at the Central Committee of CPSU. Worked in a national economy. It is awarded by the Order of Lenin, an award of October Revolution, 2 awards of the Red Star and medals. The decision of the Volgograd city council of People`s Deputies of May 7, 1980 to Yakov Fedotovich Pavlov gave the rank “ The Honourable citizen - the hero of Volgograd “.
Unfortunately, the health affected by wounds significantly reduced the hero`s life. On September 29, 1981 the Hero of the Soviet Union Ya. F. Pavlov died. He is buried in the city of Novgorod (nowadays Veliky Novgorod) on the Western cemetery …
I let history kept only its surname, but glory for descendants it all the same divided with all the companions. Each of the escaped defenders of the House was always the most dear visitor in Volgograd. In the city where they did not spare the lives. And it is not so important by whose name would call this House. Veterans in general suggest to rename it into the House of soldier`s glory. Perhaps, it and is correct …