Rus Articles Journal

Malyuta Skuratov. As relative of three Russian tsars became famous having become the inveterate murderer?

the long and bloody in the history of Russia became Ivan IV`s (Grozny) reign. He led the country at children`s age when for it the Seigniorial thought consisting of specific princes and well-born boyars governed. Ivan was crowned by the first of governors of Russia on a kingdom, but could not make independent decisions without statement by their Seigniorial thought. Wishing to receive the full autocratic power and to result the patrimonial aristocracy in humility, the tsar in 1565 created oprichnina.

In oprichnina selected hudorodny noblemen who had no communications in Moscow and were not known with boyars. The oprichnik army completed from not notable noblemen had to become, as envisioned by Ivan IV, the reliable tool in fight against princes and boyars. At transfer in monarchic destiny each guardsman it is oath promised to expose the dangerous plans threatening to the tsar and not to be silent about all bad that he learns. The service in oprichnina opened broad prospects before hudorodny noblemen, one of whom was Grigory Skuratov - Belsky who got a nickname Malyuta. He set a goal - to be beaten out in noblemen and to hold a high post at the tsar. And he achieved these objectives though he went to it in literal sense on corpses.

With establishment of oprichnina in Moscow bloody executions began. One of the first by order of the tsar oprichnik executioners executed the prince Gorbaty, him 15 - the summer son and his relative Golovin. But executed not all. Just took away lands from many princes and boyars, and sent them into exile or tonsured in monks. Only under Kazan more than a half - princes was sent into exile about 180 people with families and confidants, from them. Active participation in executions, tortures and dispatch objectionable to the tsar of people was accepted by Malyuta Skuratov. The tsar noticed his diligence, and Malyuta headed detective business in oprichnina.

Having quickly dealt shortly with princes, the tsar was accepted to nobility and noblemen. In Moscow courts and new executions began to be carried out, and just killed many without court. Skuratov actively participated in all this. Under its management punishment over prominent Moscow boyars Chelyadniny, Kolychevy was made, Shein, Morozov and many noblemen, all about 150 people died. Together with them killed about 300 servants and lackeys. Killed all who dared to protest against oprichnina. Skuratov`s merits were estimated by the tsar, and his fast eminence in oprichnina from this point began.

Being afraid for the life, the tsar ordered to build in Moscow near the Kremlin the oprichnik lock. But stayed in it not for long. He left the capital and moved to the Aleksandrovsky settlement mislaid among the dense woods and bogs. Approaches to the settlement were protected by the strengthened guards. Nobody could get into the imperial residence without special admission. Together with Ivan IV all oprichnik thought was proved in the settlement. And for Malyuta Skuratov and his helpers equipped torment cellars.

To Skuratov also the fact that to it in 1569 he charged to arrest the cousin prince Vladimir Andreevich Staritsky demonstrates to big trust of the tsar. Especially Malyuta at defeat of Novgorod caused a stir. The oprichnik thought made the decision on a campaign to Novgorod in December, 1569. The tsar collected all oprichnik troops in the Aleksandrovsky settlement and declared to it about to great change Novgorodians, without delaying troops acted in a campaign. During this period Skuratov received from Ivan the Terrible very delicate a task - to kill the deposed metropolitan Philip living near Tver in the monastery. Malyuta executed this assignment with own hand, having strangled the disgraced church figure.

The tsar at the head of oprichnik army arrived on January 8, 1570 to Novgorod. To direct defeat the cities it was entrusted to Malyuta Skuratov. His helpers arrested, tortured and killed notable Novgorodians, and just heated their wives and children in the river, dumping in an ice-hole from Volkhovsky Bridge. When were through with rich Novgorodians, began to smash the posad. The property of executed was taken away in treasury, but a lot of things got also to simple guardsmen. Even churches and monasteries were plundered. Confirms the leading role of Skuratov in massacre Sinodik disgraced in which there is a record: According to Malyutina to a skaska in a nougorotsky parcel trimmed a tysyashcha four hundred ninety people with manual truncation, and from an arquebuse fifteen people " are trimmed;. Everything as historians consider, in Novgorod more than 2 thousand people died.

After the Novgorod business Skuratov became not only the tsar`s confidant, but also could bring under execution of many heads of oprichnina. New oprichnik heads were people though titled, but relatively young, and just sat at an oprichnik thought. The executioner Malyuta Skuratov and his helpers became original heads of an oprichnik thought. And this with the fact that even Skuratov was distinguished from not notable guardsmen with the hudorodstvo. His name was in lists of dumny noblemen of oprichnina the last. Only on the eve of full cancellation of oprichnina when Malyuta`s influence on the tsar became very big, he received a rank of the domestic voivode. Earlier representatives of the well-born seigniorial nobility could hold such posts only.

By means of Malyuta the tsar continued to destroy those whom considered as the enemies. It did not spare even the relatives and priests. Living in dread of plots, Ivan blindly trusted the chief detective and the executioner, saw in it the savior. But Skuratov`s eminence cannot be explained only with one arrangement to it of the tsar seeing in the murderer soulmate . High appointment was also result of the fact that Malyuta promoted a marriage of the tsar with the relative Marfa Sobakina, having become related through this marriage with an imperial family. Among his daughters one married the cousin of the tsar Glinsky, another - future tsar Boris Godunov, and the third the prince Shuysky, the brother of future tsar.

Malyuta died during Livonsky war at storm of the lock Veysenstein (nowadays Paide in Estonia) on January 1, 1573. By order of the tsar his body was transported in Iosifo - the Volokolamsk monastery, but where it is based nowadays - it is not known.

During rule of Ivan the Terrible from oprichnik terror died more than 4 thousand people. Death of many of them on conscience imperial zaplechny affairs of the master Malyuta Skuratov whose name became nominal in Russia.