What was an ideal of female beauty during eras of baroque, rococo and an empire style?
During a baroque era (a game. The XVI-XVII centuries) naturalness gets out of fashion again. It is succeeded by stylization and theatricality. Blossoming of baroque fell on the period of board of French “ the king - the sun “ Louis XIV. Since then the French yard begins to dictate fashion to all Europe (so-called “ Versailles dictatorship “) . The nobility adopted it at mistresses of the king and extended further.
The female body in the period of baroque, as well as earlier, has to be “ to the rich “ with “ swan “ a neck, the wide shoulders and magnificent hips which are cast away back. But the waist has to be now as it is possible more thinly, and corsets from baleen become fashionable. Besides, the corset carries out one more function - it visually raises the breast usually almost open for a courageous decollete.
We will remind that canons of beauty and fashion even at the same time in the different countries of the same Europe could vary strongly. For example, in Spain the corset instead of emphasizing a breast, turned for it in real “ armor “. By means of it the breast, on the contrary, was dragged away, became flat.
Legs of women continue to disappear under the skirt keeping on hoops and reaching considerable width. The magnificent, elaborate clothes for a long time become one of basic elements of female irresistibility. Splendor of appearance was most brightly shown in wide use of the magnificent collars and wigs which existed among the nobility almost three centuries. Gloves, fans, umbrellas, couplings and jewelry become necessary accessories of ladies.
At the beginning of the 18th century there comes the rococo era, and the female silhouette changes again. Now the woman has to remind a fragile porcelain figurine. Solemn splendor of baroque is replaced by grace, ease and playfulness. At the same time theatricality and affectation do not leave anywhere - opposite, reach the peak. Both men, and women get doll shape.
The beauty of an era of rococo has narrow shoulders and a slender waist, the small bodice contrasts with a huge roundish skirt. The decollete increases, and the skirt is a little shortened. In this regard the close attention begins to be paid to underwear. Stockings become fashionable, and the petticoat is ornated. The richness of underwear becomes important also thanks to morning ladies` ceremonials in which also gentlemen also participated.
To bare a female breast, to touch it and to kiss - from now on was considered as quite decent. The modesty caused only sneers: time the girl is ashamed - means there is nothing to boast. Gentlemen sighed that “ it is easier to touch the woman`s breast, than to win her heart “. Ladies constantly found an occasion to show the breast - that the rose fell and pricked, the flea beetle bit - “ look! “. Peculiar beauty contests where ladies without shame lifted up hems were popular entertainment of the nobility also and plowed up corsages.
The rococo era dress almost does not emphasize a figure. The attention concentrates on the neck, a face, hands seeming fragile among lacy frills, ruches and tapes.
Gallant ladies put so much make-up on a face that, is told, husbands often did not recognize the wives. And as powder was made of flour in those days, excessive inquiries of women of fashion sometimes caused in the country even temporary deficiency of this foodstuff.
Wigs during an era of rococo get really grotesque bizzare shapes. On the heads carry the whole still lifes from flowers, feathers, boats with sails and even mills.
became fashionable also special black silk plasters - “ front sights “. They served as the peculiar love symbolics focusing attention of gentlemen on certain parts of a female body. Due to such specifics “ front sights “ were quite often glued not only on open parts of a body, but also under clothes. Some consider that emergence “ front sights “ it was caused by smallpox epidemic, and at first they hid the hems caused by this dreadful disease.
Theatricality of rococo was especially brightly shown in “ love pictures “ that time. Despite the dissoluteness reigning at that time, now the seductive lady is drawn not naked as earlier, and accepted “ juicy “ a pose, with the absent or slightly raised part of clothes.
So far in France rococo, in " behaved violently; Foggy Albion “ again were engaged in reopening “ Greek taste and Roman spirit “ as declared the London Society of fans of antiquity. In fashion classicism began.
Soon and the French Revolution in the hatred to Marie Antoinette`s yard together with the royalty began to liquidate domination of wigs, front sights, corsets and blush. Again naturalness began to become fashionable. To be painted brightly it is considered now a bad form therefore in decorative cosmetics are used only natural tone. Sometimes the cosmetic effect was tried to be reached in even more natural ways: if pallor was required - ladies drank vinegar if a flush - ate wild strawberry. For some time jewelry get out of fashion even. It is considered that the woman is more beautiful, the less she needs jewelry.
Imitation antique clothes (generally to a tunic and a peplos) changed also the woman`s silhouette. The dress gets clear proportions and smooth lines. The main clothes of women of fashion became snow-white shmiz - the linen shirt with a low neckline, short sleeves which is made narrower in front and freely enveloping a figure below. The belt moved under the breast. As these dresses were made generally of thin translucent muslin, women of fashion risked to catch cold in especially cold days.
French “ De Maude`s Magazine “ in 1802 recommended to the readers to visit the Monmartsky cemetery to look how many young girls fell a victim “ nude “ fashions. And the writer Kotzebue in 1804. wrote that toilets which are considered reserved in Paris now and elegant, were allowed only women of easy virtue hundred years ago.
Therefore, thanks to the Egyptian campaign of Napoleon, as “ " appendix; to a shmiz cashmere shawls which were widely popularized by the emperor`s spouse - Josephine became fashionable.
Josephine at the time of an empire style, as well as is necessary, was the first woman of fashion Imperii. Its day passed in continued cares of the appearance. In the morning the empress took a bath from almond milk. Then the so-called corn operator and the polisher of nails was engaged in it. After lessons of graceful manners Josephine made horse walk. Further fitting of new dresses with tailors and creation of a new hairdress under a new dress began. In the evening in all this furniture it went to theater, to a ball or to other secular places. Having acquired, the empress opochivat in a bed under a canopy, without having forgotten to put on at the same time for night of a glove, - the whiteness and tenderness of hands at the time of an empire style were very appreciated.
The empire style was one of the last pronounced styles dictating rather accurate canons of beauty and fashion. From the beginning of the 19th century the fashion begins to change so promptly that it is possible to catch only some brightest tendencies.
But we will talk about them next time.