What methods of prenatal diagnostics exist? Part 1.
In the previous article I already touched upon a subject of prenatal diagnostics - for what it and why. Now it would be desirable to talk about its methods.
Prenatal diagnostics uses two types of methods of research: noninvasive and invasive. In the first part we will consider noninvasive methods .
Ultrasonic research (ultrasonography).
It is one of the most harmless methods by means of which it is possible to monitor development of a fruit, its state. To check whether there are visible malformations (defects of internals of a fruit, physical deviations - a cleft lip, “ superfluous “ fingers on hands and legs, etc.) .
Ultrasonic research at normally proceeding pregnancy is conducted three times:
The first time of ultrasonography is carried out on terms of 11 - 12 weeks. On this research check whether the fruit normally develops; whether is not present “ the stiffened pregnancy “ (when development of a fruit stops); whether the heart works for the child what frequency of his warm reductions; correctness of the put pregnancy terms is specified.
The second ultrasonic research is conducted on terms by 22 - 24 weeks of pregnancy. On this ultrasonography many future parents if you want, can know a sex of the kid. The doctor besides watches how there is a development of a fruit whether there corresponds the uterine age to its development (the main criterion of the correct development of a fruit the child`s weight is considered); watches how internals develop; checks heart rate.
When the term of pregnancy reaches 32 - 34 weeks, conduct the third ultrasonic research. During this period the doctor watches in what situation there is a fruit (what its part is prelying), normal during this period the child has to be in a uterus a head down; as there is a development; as heart fights.
Additional ultrasonic researches are appointed sometimes at the time of pregnancy establishment; when the woman arrives on childbirth; when pregnancy proceeds with complications.
For each married couple such research becomes the disturbing and happy moment in it “ pregnant woman “ lives, of course, if pregnancy takes place without complications. Personally we with the husband did not go for ultrasonography, and simply “ flew “!
This method allows to investigate a blood-groove in vessels of a fruit, a uterus and an umbilical cord. The dopplerometriya by means of ultrasound is carried out. The method allows to reveal predisposition to complications during pregnancy in time to carry out timely treatment.
If the blood-groove in an artery of an umbilical cord is broken, then it can lead to starvation of a fruit. It means that the child has not enough oxygen and nutrients as they are transmitted to a fruit only through an umbilical cord.
If the dopplerometriya shows violation of a blood-groove in fruit vessels, then it can be considered as a symptom of the expressed hypoxia of future child (oxygen starvation). Such violation arises in a case “ tracked “ violations of a blood-groove in an umbilical cord artery. Pathology of a placenta, gestoza of pregnant women, infectious diseases or a Rhesus factor - the conflict in this pregnancy leads to violation of a blood-groove in an artery of an umbilical cord.
It is very important to conduct all researches appointed by the doctor in time and to be treated in due time. It will help to avoid many troubles and to keep health of future child!
Kardiotokografiya. This method is simply irreplaceable
for regular control over work of heart of the child. It allows to define nature of warm reductions at rest, at its stir and at uterine reductions. It is very important indicator of definition of health of a fruit during pregnancy.
Begin to apply a method approximately about 32 weeks of pregnancy of times in two weeks. If pregnancy proceeds with complications, then it is recommended to carry out a kardiotokografiya at least once a week.
When carrying out this research future mother should lie on a back, whenever possible not to move and not to change position of a body before the end of procedure as the accuracy of indications depends on it. The belt with the sensors connected to the special device is attached to a stomach. In such situation it is necessary to spend about 20 - 30 minutes. I know on myself as it is unpleasant to lie during pregnancy on a back on a firm surface, during such time moreover without movements! But it is very important procedure for your kid and it is necessary to observe strictly all recommendations of the doctor during a kardiotokografiya.
Also refer definition of fetalny markers to noninvasive methods and researches on infection : hlamidiya, ureaplasma, mycoplasma, cytomegalovirus, toxoplasma, herpes, measles, hepatitis, rubella, etc. To define presence or absence of above-mentioned diseases, at future mother dabs and blood several times throughout all pregnancy undertake on the analysis.
There is a wish to remind that each diagnosis which is taken out by means of prenatal researches needs to be rechecked not to allow infliction of harm to the future child!