Child and suicide. How to notice, understand and help? Part 1.
are noted growth of suicide activity in recent years. The CIS countries constantly take the leading places by the number of suicides on 100000 population. Among causes of death of children and teenagers the suicide takes the SECOND place.
(The suicide is a deliberate deprivation of of life. Thoughts of suicide, the corresponding statements, threats, intentions and attempts to commit suicide are called suicide.)
Such frightening figure is connected, first of all, with neoconsciousness children of irreversibility of death, a shortcoming at them life experience, awareness on border limits between life and death. From outside close people the criminal callousness which is shown in misunderstanding of the reasons and mechanisms of a children`s suicide comes to light. And negligence in such questions and hope “ at random “ lead often to death of the child which could be avoided even by means of banal “ informal conversation “.
At research of the microsocial circle of the children and teenagers who made suicides it was revealed that 87% of families in which they lived on socially - to economic characteristics were quite safe. Despite it, the major factor influencing emergence of suicide behavior at children is the situation in a family. 92% of suicides at children`s age are connected with an unsuccessful family situation. The suicide is closely connected with the high level of alarm, the aggression directed both to itself (autoaggression) and on people around.
Presence at children of the relatives, friends, close acquaintances who committed suicide increases degree of risk of suicide behavior at them. The same effect can render on teenagers - fans death of their idol, especially if it was a consequence of a suicide.
Considering suicide behavior of children, it is necessary to consider that the concept of death as categories of the termination of life at them is, as a rule, not created. Thus, suicides of the child and adult are essentially various .
To 3 - x years the child has no the borders separating him from world around yet, does not distinguish dead and live. It has no ideas of time, of the future, so, and about death. If within the first years of life it has to face a death phenomenon, then the representations arising in this regard and emotions only reflect reactions on the death of people, significant for it, especially mothers. Suicides at this age meet extremely seldom.
At preschool children some ideas of death are already, as a rule, created. However at the same time they often consider death as destiny only of old men, without allowing thought of a possibility of the termination of own life. Besides, most of children of this age has no understanding of irreversibility of death.
At school students accurate differentiation of concepts of life and death is already noted though the death still continues to be estimated by them as a temporary phenomenon. At the same time many nevertheless have a fear to die, is more often - fear of death of parents.
Most often divorce of parents, death of the loved one, an animal and even more often - a drug addiction are the reasons of suicides at children of 7 - 10 years . The accruing social disadaptation, loneliness, moral and physical sufferings, absence of prospect generate the alarm, aggression, an autoaggression which are quite often expressed in suicide behavior.
Reflections about lives and death, keen interest in these subjects are peculiar to teenagers, as finds the reflection in youth subculture. The subject of death is especially attractive, quite often it gets for young men and girls even an aura of mysterious romanticism.
Only insignificant percent of teenagers realizes that the death is the final termination of physical and spiritual life. The others anyway deny irreversibility of death, believe in reincarnation, in afterlife etc. Due to these features at children and teenagers it is much more difficult, than at adults, to distinguish true suicide acts from demonstrative suicide imitations.
The critical factors defining tendency of the child to suicide are:
change of a hormonal background during puberty and the instability of mood, experience connected with it concerning the changes happening in the growing organism;
specific age reaction to alcohol;
presence at the child of any diseases noticeable to people around, especially to peers;
the wrong education developing ideal highly moral installations which contradict real life is led to the overestimated requirements to themselves and people around (it generates the depressive reactions connected with “ loss of faith in people “ the self-accusations which are followed by ideas with all that it implies.
The success in hard case on recognition of possible attempt of a suicide is in many respects facilitated by the child! 80% of the children who conceived to commit suicide of let know previously about the intentions to people around. Ways of the message can be veiled by
, and it is EXTREMELY NECESSARY to UNDERSTAND them! Quite often potential suitsidenta start conversations on death, on the otioseness, helplessness, on the desperate situation, mention episodes of suicides in movies and novels.
Usually such statements directly precede suicide attempt.
The author of article hopes that these data will set the adult contingent of the population thinking of relevance of a problem of a children`s suicide, to look back to children, whether it be native or neighbour`s, or at all unfamiliar children and to try to understand that he is created in their small souls. Children - thin and fragile dandelions which are so easy for turning into naked blades of grass! They - our future! Let`s rise in its defense!
The second article will be devoted to methods of assistance to potential suitsidenta and children in the post-suicide period, and also to types of behavior of the children who endured suicide attempt.