Whom the glorified Soviet women-pilots called “ Siskin “?
on October 8, 1908, 100 years ago, in the village of Novospasovka of the Berdyansk district of the Zaporizhia region in a family of the peasant Denis Dudnik the girl was born. She was the ninth child, and named her Polina. The family lived in poverty, and here still war. Not everyone endured it...
Perhaps, also therefore Polina did not begin to delay a marriage, already in 18 - summer age having married in a hurry for the fellow villager Stepan Govyaz. But young people not for long enjoyed joint life, their roads dispersed. Stepan went to Kachinsk, to study as the military pilot, and Polina, actually anywhere not studying (if not to take into account two classes tserkovno - parish school), went to Kiev, to courses of poultry breeders. Upon return to the native village it was appointed to manage a collective-farm poultry farm.
However, phrase “ On a poultry farm I can potter with ducks for days “ was obviously not about Polina. This bird`s kingdom bothered it month through three - four. Bore a little more, and went to Kachinsk, to the husband. Was arranged to work to the flight dining room. But also among spoons, cups and glasses too long did not sustain, every time asked the husband: “ The Step, show how to steer plane! “. Stepan at first refused, but then when it became clear that persons interested to show to the nice married lady, “ what handle it is necessary to pull “ in a cabin, it appeared too much, he reconsidered the relation to Polina`s hobby.
But, perhaps, the crucial role in Polina`s destiny was played by the first Soviet marshal Kliment Voroshilov. Once it came to inspect Kachinsky aviaschool, and the bright girl, having brought to the commander a glass with compote, suddenly started talking “ not under the charter “ begging “ dear Kliment Efremovich to allow it to arrive to study as the pilot “. Voroshilov at first smiled, and then, seeing persistence 23 - the summer girl, conceded. Also ordered to refer to it if there are any problems.
Having heard a surname “ Voroshilov “ at a selection committee all questions disappeared. So in 1933 Polina Govyaz graduated from Kachinsky aviaschool. Also began independent flights. Unfortunately, when Polina began to be trained specially for establishment of records, Stepan was violently sent to the new duty station, they seemed very seldom, and soon the husband reported that he decided not to stir her destiny, and they were forced to leave. But Polina always emphasized a role of the first husband in its flight formation.
The second husband of Polina - Alexander Osipenko - for three years was younger than her, but is much more perspective, on ideas “ rulers of the destiny “ for a role of the spouse of the national heroine. Further these calculations came true: Alexander was at war in Spain, beat fascists in days of the Great Patriotic War, the general - the lieutenant retired in a rank. And here Stepan was lucky much less: that it “ did not get under feet “ he was arrested, and he appeared in Stalin camps which left …
A to Polina nobody " any more; did not disturb “. Began service the lieutenant Govyaz in Khabarovsk Krai, then there were aviaparts of Zhytomyr and Kiev, and in the spring of 1935 - guo Oxipengko is transferred to the Moscow military district, and then appoint the inspector of the Air Force at the General Staff. Then she also became Osipenko.
In 1936 the woman-pilot, during All-Union meeting of wives of the command and commanding structure of RKKA in the Kremlin, was presented to the country leaders. From a high tribune she declared: “ I Promise to fly above all girls of the world! “.
At first it blocked achievement of Italian Negron whose seaplane rose by height of 6200 meters. On May 22, 1937 established to Osipenko a world record, having risen by height of 9100 meters. In two days - at you weed a world record with freight: Polina lifted on a seaplane on height of 7009 meters freight in one ton.
After high-rise Osipenko stormed records on range, having flown over the country from the South on the North. Permission on weeds and the people`s commissar of defense Kliment Voroshilov gave selection of crew.
During preparation for flight on range for which prepared, except Polina also Marina Raskova with Vera Lomako, unexpectedly it became clear that Polina is not able to swim. Marina who, wishing to encourage the girlfriend, kept saying undertook to train it: “ Good fellow, Siskin “. This “ Siskin “ as if stuck to Osipenko, girlfriends and began to call it...
On July 2, 1938 the crew as a part of Osipenko, the second pilot Vera Lomako and the navigator Marina Raskova, established a female world record of flight on a straight line (Sevastopol - Kiev - Veliky Novgorod - Arkhangelsk), having overcome with freight in five and a half tons in 10 hours 33 minutes 2372 km.
Two and a half months later, on September 24 - 25, 1938 by ANT plane - 37 “ Homeland “ (the commander is Valentina Grizodubova, the navigator - Marina Raskova) Moscow-Far East made non-stop flight. And on November 2, 1938 to Polina Denisovna Osipenko the rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union was given.
On May 1, 1939 Polina participated in an air show during parade at Red Square. And in 10 days, carrying out educational weeds with the chief of the Main flight inspection of the Air Force of RKKA A. K. Serov, on native airfield did not return …
Even during investigation the version that this plane crash was " arose; it is planned “ supposedly someone from the high-ranking persons “ took notice “ on the spouse the pilot actress Serova. Whether there was actually cool murder or accident - already not an essence important. Polina Denisovna Osipenko was buried at the Kremlin wall with all honors. To see off the woman-pilot - the record-holder thousands of Soviet people came. And their grief was quite sincere.
And the general - the lieutenant Alexander Osipenko endured the spouse more than on half a century, and died relatively recently, in 1991 …