Rus Articles Journal

What languages were are conceived in a test tube ?

At first on all Earth there was one language and one people. Then people to much learned and became proud of it. Let`s construct a tower to heaven, - they solved, - and we will be as Gods! . Construction began. The tower rose above and above, and the arrogance of people grew together with it. God to Earth descended and saw that people build a monument to the arrogance. He decided to punish them for arrogance and arrogance: Let your language will mix up so that one did not understand what he tells another about! . Construction of a tower stopped at once because builders ceased to understand one another. Those who managed to understand each other began to unite. So there were different people and different languages. The city to in what there was a construction of a tower was given the name Babylon that means mixture .

The plot of this bible legend is known to all. Ancient considered that the language barrier is a God`s penalty. There passed centuries, but people continued to consider multilingualism as severe punishment for people. During a romanticism era by much it was dreamed of a brotherhood of all people and people, of restoration of the lost harmony. There was an idea of creation of the world language of which Bacon and Descartes, Leibniz and Newton, Catherine II and Karl Marx dreamed.

Volapuk was the first international language which visited the use . In 1879 the literary newspaper of the Bavarian town appeared with the appendix under the name The Project of the world language and the world grammar for educated people of all nations of Earth . A year later his author - the German poet and the priest Johann Shleyer - published the textbook which was called Volapuk, world " language;. In a year in this language the newspaper was already issued, and three more years later in Volapuk there was held the first international congress. In the different countries the courses training to Volapuk were conducted. On it the set of magazines was issued.

This language had a logical grammar without uniform exception. Writing coincided with a pronunciation. Words consisted of the German, French, English and Latin lexicon. However not the whole words, but their parts which changed and developed as the designer (by the same principle, as the name of language were used - world (world) turned into vol, and (to tell) speak - in puk; it turned out volapuk ) . Carriers of many languages saw in Volapuk something bearing a faint resemblance to their native language, but more similar to gibberish. Among adherents of the author of Volapuk disagreements as many began to notice shortcomings of language began, but Shleyer did not want anything to change. When he died in 1912, quickly forgot about its language.

Today at us the word Volapuk call the text representing rather an a mere verbiage. Or the text with a set of grammatical mistakes. That is, most often Volapuk of the teacher call fruits of labor of careless pupils.

By then when Volapuk practically died together with the author, there was already modern artificial language - of Esperanto . His author - the doctor from Warsaw Eliezer Zamengof. Eliezer was born in the Polish city of Bialystok which was in the 19th century a part of the Russian Empire. It was possible to call this city new Babylon: on streets of Bialystok it was possible to hear the speech on Russian, Polish, Belarusian and Yiddish. Eliezer, the native of a family of the Lithuanian Jews, since the childhood spoke Yiddish, Polish and Russian. Life in such multilanguage environment awakened interest in linguistics in Zamengof. Later he learned some more languages.

At school Eliezer had an idea of creation of language on which would start talking the whole world. This language had to be learned, have simple grammar easily. In Russian difficult system of cases. In English, as in the known joke if it is written Manchester it is necessary to read Liverpool . Also and in French. In Italian with it it is simpler, but, as well as in English and in French, a set wrong verbs which need to be remembered. In new language of Zamengof everything was simple. Only 16 grammatical rules without any exceptions! Words were created from roots of words of the most widespread European languages. In Esperanto there are loans and from Russian.

In 1887 Zamengof published the book with the description of a modern language under the pseudonym Doctor Esperanto, that is the Doctor hoping. Zamengof did not want to risk the reputation and career of the doctor - the ophthalmologist to whom patients will hardly trust, knowing that he is engaged in utopian projects. Therefore he also thought up the pseudonym which turned soon into the name of language. Today from one to several million people on Earth know language of Esperanto or are at least familiar with it. Dante and Pushkin, Bulgakov and Tolkien`s works are transferred to this language. Also original literature of Esperanto is always on the lips. On it more than 200 books are annually published and there are about 300 periodicals. There are websites in Esperanto. It is considered that lives in the world from one to two thousand people for whom Esperanto is the native language.

However Zamengof`s dream was not achieved: did not start talking the whole world Esperanto. The reasons of it, most likely, consist in the following: in - the first, Esperanto is everything - language European therefore for the Japanese or the Arab of Esperanto - language absolutely others, and therefore difficult. In - the second, the status international was received by English. So why to learn artificial language with which couple of millions people when it is possible to learn English on which already tell hundreds of millions are familiar at most?

Today Esperanto is the most known of artificial languages. But there are also other languages, conceived in a test tube . Language solresol is interesting, in my opinion, . The author of this musical language is Frenchman Jean Francois Sudr. Language was born in 1817 and was based on notes. Putting seven notes in different combinations, Sudr developed the dictionary including more than 10 thousand words. Words solresolya can be written with letters, the first seven Arab figures or notes, to say or sing, execute on any musical instrument having scale, to signal tags and to reproduce in the flowers of a rainbow. I love you in language solresol will sound as Dore of a milyasa house .

In 1951 by the International association of auxiliary languages it was declared creation of a modern language which was based on the dictionary of Romance languages with the simplified grammar. Language received the name Interlingua . It is created by folkspraak - so-called all-German language.

For all history hundreds of artificial languages were created. On some only fantastic and fantastic heroes spoke, others were planned as international, however any language did not become the general for all people of the Earth. We still continue to pay for sins of our ancestors who solved, having constructed a tower to heaven, to assimilate to gods.