As “ Prince of Denmark “ Dahl undertook to plow Russian open spaces?
on October 4, 1872, 135 years ago, stopped Vladimir Ivanovich Dahl`s heart, whose authority on knowledge “ sensible Russian “ it is indisputable already kind one and a half centuries. Though, by and large, “ Prince of Denmark “ as called Dahl which - which of his contemporaries, could remain in the history at least that was a doctor who tried to alleviate Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin`s suffering right after duel on the Black small river. He the first understood that the wound of the great Russian poet, alas, is fatal … Vladimir Ivanovich was born
10 on November (22), 1801 in the town of Lugan (nowadays - Luhansk) in Malorossiya as called Ukraine earlier. His father was a native of Denmark, got an education in Germany, and practiced in Russia. The Russian name Ivan Matveevich was received by Johann Christiaan Dahl together with the Russian citizenship in 1799 in Luhansk, in a year after arrival to Russia. However, it is not less at all, than from the father, Dahl inherited also from mother, the German on a nationality. This was the highly educated woman, it is enough to tell that she spoke fluently and wrote in five European languages and did not dare to employ for children of tutors and tutors, taught them to all. Under the influence of mother young Volodya began to write verses.
He left a native home in 14 years when he became the cadet of military school in St. Petersburg. However, he turned out not delighted neither from study, nor from a mushtra which prospered in school, and much later fairly called this time “ the killed years “. The destiny showed it the father`s homeland during an educational campaign, but pastoral Denmark with its very measured rate of life, caused in the young man only disappointment. He decided to connect all the life only with Russia.
After release the destiny abandoned Dahl in warm regions, on the Black Sea fleet, but even the officer service did not attract Vladimir Ivanovich. Watches, sailors, campaigns - all this was obvious not for restless soul, they reminded a cage even if and with gilded rods. Maintaining the diary in which he wrote down words which happened to be heard for the first time became the only outlet for the young officer. To Dahl it was pardonable - in his veins did not flow the Russian blood at all … Everything began
with juicy botsmansky mats, salty expressions among which “ needle you in a liver “ was the softest form of manifestation of displeasure. When words collected enough to become the in a board, Dahl passed to the verses composed in Russian. Also it that the commander of fleet became one of the first objects for versification should happen. The epigram on it was such juicy that ladies at the first lines covered the faces with fans because these persons burned with shame.
Of course, verses were read to the commander who swore a solemn oath that will let rot this poet in Siberia. Dahl was arrested, but in court the lawyer managed to prove that this foreigner insufficiently correctly understands some Russian words and expressions, so, it is necessary to understand at first who whispered it these venomous maxims. The defendant - it is simple how the parrot, repeated what no belmesa understands...
The court acquitted the semi-Dane - the semi-German. And it, out of harm`s way, was transferred to Kronstadt, having in passing sworn that will master this language better than any Russian! Also kept the word, constantly filling up the records which soon removed from the first notebook to the second. Then in the third, etc. But the most important, instead of “ sigarettes “ at bedtime Dahl re-read every evening new words and tried “ to drive “ in their sense.
When words and expressions began to repeat even more often, Vladimir Ivanovich suddenly realized that in the Russian fleet he has nothing to do more. That it took out all “ " water; from this small boat. So, the occupation can be replaced.
In 1826 25 - summer Dahl entered the Derptsky university on medical faculty. Here - that also had to be regretted about the precipitate decision to leave fleet more than once. There was not enough money, and Vladimir Ivanovich settled the tutor. The medicine of very few people interested, and here persons interested to teach the child it is correct to talk in the native language was more than enough. So slowly Dahl was also involved in Russian.
In three years of study Vladimir Ivanovich managed to prove as the sensible surgeon, and therefore, after thesis defense, he was sent right there on russko - the Turkish war to field army. He worked as the surgeon in field hospital, and minutes of calm liked to talk to the recovering wounded, writing down various dialects. And developed as cubes “ Lego “ bricks of its future Dictionary.
Of course, Dahl would not be Dahl if did not walk smack again. In its collection “ The Russian fairy tales from the legend national oral on the diploma civil shifted, to life everyday adapted and sayings walking decorated with Cossack Vladimir Lugansky. Heels the first “ censorship saw a sneer at the government. Also wanted to send to prison again. And again Dahl rescued him “ non-russian “ origin yes military merits. And “ Cossack Lugansky “ became its pseudonym for many years … the First edition of the Explanatory dictionary of living great Russian language is dated
1867. Nearly half a century of selfless work “ were pressed “ in 200 thousand words. Of them more than a half is made by literary lexicon, and more than 80 000 words, generally dialect, were written down by Dahl in various regions of Russia. And well-known “ Proverbs of the Russian people “ in which proverbs settled down not alphabetically, and on subjects (God, love, a family etc.), were a peculiar forerunner of the Dictionary and left in five years prior to it. In total it collected and processed about 37 thousand proverbs and sayings.
And I want to finish the story “ tasty “ fact. The fairy tale with the juicy beginning “ Once upon a time there were grandfather and the woman. Also they had a chicken of Ryaba “ belongs to Vladimir Ivanovich Dahl. And the fact that it is considered national, a graphic evidence that " long ago; Prince of Denmark “ became the in a board in Russia …