How the Russian peasants ate?
of Istoriko - statistical descriptions of counties and provinces of Russia, numerous publications of ethnographic notes in provincial sheets 1870 - 1890 - x give years us the chance to get acquainted with various parties of life of our ancestors. In particular, with that, for example, as they ate. And it, in turn, helps to understand also some features of today`s national life.
Those from citizens that have relatives in the village, perhaps, noticed how there is a lot of, nourishingly and, in general, peasants tastelessly prepare. And it - not from feebleness of rural cooks, and from sincere rejection of other reasons by them, than ensuring hard country work with simple and simple food in production. There was such approach, probably, in immemorial times. Also was proved by severe reality. In - the first, the peasant was always limited in the choice of products and ways of their culinary processing. In - the second, a main goal of the hostess was - to feed a family, workers idle time on a set of products, idle time in processing and very nourishing food.
What provided a sytnost - “ nazhoristost “ how it was called a time? Of course, potatoes. Potatoes boiled, potatoes fried, potato soup - with “ zabely “ (milk addition) in ferial day, with vegetable oil - in day fast... Other main vegetable, a pillar of country kitchen - cabbage. Russian cabbage soup from gray cabbage - with the same seasoning, as well as soup. And all this is under black bread. Such is was daily everyday “ " menu; a lunch and a dinner for the peasant of the center of Russia.
The breakfast and an afternoon snack made a rye cheese cake with cottage cheese, or rye potatoes or turnip pie. And is more often - if to the hostess had no time for a delicacy - just a chunk of black bread with boiled potato. And, of course, tea. Tea - as a prayer, twice a day the peasant drank tea - “ unburdened the heart “. Only in some meat days from peasants changed tea - cooked burned chicory, flavored it with milk. Or milk was added to the same tea - “ for a color “.
In posts the diet changed. Went to food the white sauerkraut flavored with onions and kvass, a radish with oil, “ mess “ or “ tyurya “ - mix from grain crackers, iskroshenny potato, onions and kvass, with addition of horse-radish, vegetable oil and salt.
With pleasure ate something similar to present plain vinaigrettes - chopped boiled beet with kvass and cucumbers. There was this simple pleasure under “ to a mykotin “ - the black bread only baked from the flour sifted through a sieve and not so sour as usual “ chernushka “.
On Sundays and “ small “ holidays ate almost as well as on weekdays. Only sometimes prepared “ tvorozhnik “. For this dish the cottage cheese pounded with sour cream with addition of couple of eggs and milk in a clay flat dish was maintained in the Russian furnace.
Business did not do without delicacies. And not gingerbreads, cookies, candies - very expensive for a country purse, not dried " were them; figs “ - pears which should be bought somewhere, not the jam demanding as preservative of treacle or very expensive sugar too. No, regaled - the soared turnip! Her children, and in a post loved in the winter - and adults, especially respected a fruit drink from this root crop.
Not so ancient is a tradition national “ kasheedstvo “. Porridge, in fact, was a food concentrate. Also it was used only in “ harvest season “ what the haymaking admitted.
Meat the Russian peasants are dependent vegetarians - fir-trees on big holidays - for Christmas, the Epiphany, Easter, the Trinity, Christmas and the Dormition of the Theotokos, memory of apostles Pyotr and Pavel. However, as well as white “ pechevo “ - pies and sitny of white wheat flour.
The special table was also in others “ special “ cases. “ To a dump “ happened also meat, and “ pecheva “ from white flour, and other viands, including purchased in the city or in a rural bench, - in time “ pomochy “ on celebrations on the occasion of a name-day, christening, on patronal feast days. Then both wines, and to tea drank too much. If to consider what thrones in rural temples (and not in rural too) happens, except the main thing it is possible to imagine, some more, how many occasions were for a gluttony and a gulezh.
These holidays lasted quite often from 2 - 3 (on spring) till 7 - 10 days (fall). If it was the patronal or family feast day, the great number of guests - the family or people, just well familiar with owners, and not one by one, and families, with wives and children gathered in each house (both adult, and small - except maidens!) in festive clothes. Came on the best horses, in the best crews.
The holidays describing these (and either rural priests, or territorial figures, or local teachers were them most often) especially note how such feasts cost much - “ what is spent on these holidays, would be enough from the rest for payment for the whole year of a quitrent and all taxes and duties - and the peasant would not be forced the whole year to eat which - than... “.
It were just those holidays which echoes we and now sometimes meet in life - terrible abundance of food and alcohol, with fair costs of action. Among other things - and we got it in inheritance from ancestors.