Whether we sometime learn the truth about “ Young Guard “?
on October 2, 1942, 65 years ago, in the miner`s city of Krasnodon occupied by fascists several young people came to the unanimous decision: to counteract Hitlerites, it is necessary to create the organization. After discussion stopped the choice on the sonorous name - “ Young Guard “.
No, perhaps, the second such underground organization created in the territory occupied by the enemy which would generate so many rumors, the legends, half-words arising from nowhere versions and their denials. So did not treat saving important documents, as in the museum of members of the Young Guard in Krasnodon anywhere. Continually someone letters, memoirs, orders, orders, certificates ruthlessly got dirty, and from above there was a new record sometimes breaking former treatment, to put it mildly, totally.
Especially suffered in these “ correspondences “ two categories of members of the Young Guard - “ heroes “ and traitors “. Oleg Koshevoy and Victor Tretyakevich were distinguished from the first. Part of witnesses, and they were the majority, called the commissioner “ Young Guard “ Koshevy, others did not agree: in total - Tretyakevich is more senior and is more skilled. The third did not know at all who is who …
Unfortunately, did not manage to appear over fight and the famous writer Alexander Fadeyev who heard about members of the Young Guard in only several months after liberation of Krasnodon, in the same, 1943. He arrived to this small miner`s town for collecting material, but lodged for some reason in the house where there lived Elena Koshevaya together with Oleg`s grandmother. They say that Elena was very beautiful woman and managed to fascinate sent. And it is even more - at one time they divided a bed. I do not dare to claim that everything was exactly as scandal-mongers, leisure on language, wanted. Especially as today it does not make special sense to dig in dirty linen 65 - summer prescription.
Anyway, but Oleg became the commissioner of the organization in literary option. And here Tretyakevich not only that it was pushed on the second plan, so also for full discredit was brought in the novel as the traitor. Near Stakhovich Fadeyev suspected Tretyakevich, and nobody other. Therefore did not include in the " list; members of the Young Guard “. Perhaps, it “ was guided “ on testimonies of T. Chernyshov who on interrogation declared on July 10, 1943 that “ in chambers of police V. Tretyakevich behaved provocatively “. That it “ cheerful came from interrogations, smoked cigarettes, openly said that he confessed to everything, advised it to make another and said that all understood will not be shot, and will be directed in " camp;. For what to it companions - members of the Young Guard suited in a chamber dark. But Fadeyev could not but know that later Chernyshov refused the indications, having declared that similar he told nothing to the investigator, it is mean provocation …
As for fanatic interrogations, the broken nails, the cut-off hands and a foot, the put-out eyes - that, unfortunately, there was an honest truth. There is no exaggeration, excuse for naturalism. Executioners flew into a rage because that could not beat out such confession which was necessary to them. When underground workers were seized, in Krasnodon the remote roar of a cannonade was already heard, the Red Army promptly came and to jump in the last car to fascists, their henchmen needed to show that they opened plot. It is not less in any way of the fact that could affect significantly if not the war course, then a situation on this concrete battlefield.
But 16 - 18 - summer boys and little girls could not tell anything. And they, apparently, were not connected with an underground (the role of the communist Lyutikov and the leading and directing force of party in the novel were obviously overestimated), and them “ fighting stocks “ by and large, huge harm could not be caused to fascists. Besides actively only a few units participated in resistance, the others were attracted to single actions from time to time.
As executioners as they behaved with brutality endeavored, but soon they were convinced of what to inflate from a fly of an elephant at them it will not turn out. Plot threads to Berlin do not last, the group of almost unarmed boys does not prepare attempts at the high-ranking military and officials. Generally, boys in war
play It already later messages of type will be published one of notes in the Soviet press: “ By the end of December, 1942 in “ Young Guard “ about hundred people entered, the arsenal of the organization made 15 automatic machines, 80 rifles, 10 guns, 300 grenades, about 15 thousand cartridges, 65 kilograms of " explosive;. Everything is picked up, as to anniversary: 100 people, 15 thousand cartridges, 15 automatic machines, 80 rifles, 300 grenades. And if found 301 - yu and 302 - yu? Would throw out not to spoil the equal account?
Perhaps, on me, as well as in a case with Marx, will collapse again the critic of those to whom yesterday`s ideals are expensive. I, as well as most of the Soviet people, at boyish and teenage age was proud of feats of members of the Young Guard, for me Seryozha Tyulenin was and remains an idol. But today I can look at all this history of a Krasnodon underground eyes of the father having two adult sons. And if to cast away all this ideological background, I can tell: now I have more bitterness. For the fact that adults could not save these 62 boys and little girls did not show due consideration to their dangerous games, did not prompt where there passes this invisible border that divides life and death.
Even when the first arrests (and rumors about them in a small town were carried practically at once) began, first of all, many adults showed full carelessness, without having sent children for a while from Krasnodon (Rovenkakh seized just - Koshevy and several of his companions who could not pass a front line). Many parents argued so: “ Why to run? Wash - that precisely it is not mixed in anything! “.
Thought, will manage. Did not manage …
was Counted on indulgence of executioners: they will not begin to kill almost innocent young men and girls? Miscalculated …
dealt shortly With members of the Young Guard approximately a month before arrival of Red Army. From 66 people only 8 escaped. These are official data: in the list of families “ Members of the Young Guard “ which were granted a personal pension, 54 surnames are registered. By the way, Tyulenin had a surname slightly another - Tyulenev. But took place in the novel “ Tyulenin “ and Sergey`s mother had to change urgently a surname on literary, otherwise it could be left without personal pension for the died son.
And I want to finish the narration about members of the Young Guard with two short messages. Commander “ Young Guard “ - the senior lieutenant Ivan Turkenich - was not fallen fascists into clutches, managed to cross a front line. He battled against Hitlerites in regular army and fell death brave in Poland, in fight for the city of Gonguv. The rank of the Hero of the Soviet Union to it was given only in far 1989.
Up to now from members of the Young Guard only Vasily Levashov lived (by mistake his Fadeyev “ buried “ in the novel, and actually his cousin Sergey died). It as a part of a shooting regiment reached Berlin. By the way, Vasily Ivanovich Levashov died on July 10, 2001 in Petrodvorets …