How the mechanism of psychological protection is arranged?
That it “ psychological protection “?
When the difficult life situation develops and there are questions: “ how to be? “ “ what to do? “ “ where exit? “ different people differently behave in similar situations. One people deny presence of problems at themselves, others - “ forget “ about the event injuring them, the third - begin to consider sincerely that the events have no relation to them. But to whatever way the person resorted, protecting the mentality from painful unpleasant experiences, it leans in it on the protective mechanisms.
Since the early childhood and during all life in mentality of the person the mechanisms which are traditionally called " arise and develop; psychological protection “ “ protective mechanisms of mentality “ or “ protective mechanisms of the personality “. These mechanisms as if protect consciousness of the person from negative emotional experiences, promote preservation of psychological balance, stability. In a broad sense term “ psychological protection “ it is used for the designation of any behavior eliminating psychological discomfort, minimizing feeling of alarm, connected with understanding of the internal or external conflict.
Review of protective mechanisms
Term “ psychological protection “ now use almost all psychotherapeutic schools, it is included in psychological and psychiatric dictionaries. But, unfortunately, still there is no clarity of rather total number of mechanisms of protection (it fluctuates from 8 to 23), there is also no their accurate uniform classification. However there is a number of protective mechanisms which existence admits all authors.
Treat them already denial when the person refuses to accept any actions or events; rationalization when to already perfect actions or, on the contrary, inaction the reasonable justifying explanations are looked for as it was done by the Fox in the fable about grapes.
Replacement (suppression) of the injuring impression. For example, it is frequent that at whom in crowd pulled out a purse from a pocket, tries as soon as possible “ to forget “ about the incident to force out these unpleasant memoirs.
Regression - return of mental development on earlier step. A typical case of psychological regression is the behavior 3 - 4 - the summer child after emergence in the newborn`s family. The senior child can worse begin to speak, cease to use a pot, to refuse to eat independently. These changes in behavior are intended for a gain of full attention of parents.
Jet education - result of work of one of protective mechanisms which leads to emergence of a way of behavior, opposite to the unconscious forced-out aspiration. For example, when mother begins to care, show exaggeratedly love and tenderness to the unwanted child whom actually hates.
A projection - acceptance of the thoughts, feelings and motives for others, “ insertion “ own thoughts in the heads of people around. For example, the people inclined to projection often have feeling of jealousy. The husband meeting the wife after work can see that it leaves the office building together with the nice colleague. The jealous man right there will finish thinking about the nonexistent facts, will enclose the assumptions in the heads of the wife and her employee, will begin to worry and will make scandal, without having worked to clear a situation.
An introjection - inclusion by the person in the inner world of views, motives and installations of other people; acceptance of foreign opinion for the. Introyetsirovaniye, as a rule, occurs during a negative trance which the condition of a stress is, for example. Mother in a quarrel fuse shouting daughters: “ Such nobody will fall in love with You! “ seriously complicates private life of future young woman. And it is much easier for girl to agree that she such bad is by nature that nobody will fall in love with her, than to assume that mother bears her the malice. In it protective functions of an introyetsirovaniye consist.
Sublimation - transfer of energy of instincts (mainly sexual and aggressive impulses) to socially acceptable forms. The problem of sublimation has paramount value in education and pedagogics. To teach the child to ability to quickly switch own energy of affective inclinations and to transform it to a kind joke, an allegory, sharpness, to realize it in any creative activity, sport - means to give to the person in hands the tool considerably increasing its adaptive opportunities in modern society.
For what mechanisms of psychological protection are necessary?
In psychology, unfortunately, the uniform view of the phenomenon " did not develop; psychological protection “. One researchers consider psychological protection as unambiguously unproductive, harmful cure of the internal or external conflict. Others suggest to do distinction between pathological psychological protection and normal, preventive, constantly present at our everyday life, a usual component of human consciousness.
All mechanisms of psychological protection help the person to reduce feeling of alarm to a minimum. The projection helps to understand that feel, other people think and wish, without it sympathy and compassion would be impossible. The introjection allows to pass on quickly without explanations and trials the saved-up experience from generation to generation through the accurate squeezed statements. Sublimation is the most adaptive way of psychological protection as it leads to socially approved results. According to the psychoanalytic theory, art creativity represents one of types of sublimation when imaginations of the creator sublimate in creative visions.