How it is correct to contain, feed and give to drink to a cow?
And so also ask: “ Tell about a cow from And to Ya “. To buy - bought and as it is correct to manage with it in what terms what to do, plainly do not know. And though each my neighbor knows as well as that, but it does not satisfy certain cattle-farmers and they ask to tell about it everything that is known not only practice, but also the theory. But “ in total “ in article you will not state for anything. On this subject multivolume works are written. So we will tell about a cow so far - her physiological cycles, requirements to conditions of keeping it is short, and details, at a demand, I will be able to publish later.
The best doynitsa most likely are found among thoroughbred animal specialized dairy breeds: it is black - motley, holmogorsky, Yaroslavl, red steppe or combined (on milk and meat): simmentalsky, shvitsky and others. However, thoroughbred cows seldom get to a homestead shed. Here more local live. However and rekordistka on yields of milk occur among them. Cow calves from them lovingly are grown up and sell in good hands.
Here such cow (from these cow calves) would also be good to be caught to you for the farmyard. Firstcalf heifers of usually more small adult animals, the udder at them is less voluminous. In herd you distinguish them at once. And the yield of milk is small. But for the time being. Good feeding, massage of an udder before milking and after it develop dairy body, and the cow from year to year milks more and more. The peak of efficiency is the share of the fifth - the sixth lactation. And each lactation (the period of a producing milk) lasts more than 300 days.
The best yields of milk, of course, after an otel. By spring some recession and as there will be cows to a pasture - again take-off is observed. In two months prior to the following otel the cow is gradually started, and the lactation stops. There comes the so-called sukhostoyny period. Date of the forthcoming otel is calculated on the records of terms of copulation. The Stelnost proceeds on average 280 days. After an otel hunting at a cow to pairing comes at the end of the first month, on 25 - 28 - y day. It lasts 15 - 36 h, during this time it is necessary to try to couple a cow with a bull or to inseminate on point.
If saw hunting, couple in following which will come on average in 21 days. Time from an otel before fertilization is called service - the period. Its duration longer is undesirable than two months - after an otel the cow already manages to have a rest and is capable to bear a calf again. It is possible to define hunting. The cow worries, lows, under a tail she has a redness and a swelling. In a stall hunting can quite and be missed, and during walk the behavior of an animal is evident at once.
Frequent question: what fat content of milk at a cow depends on? Very first - from her natural inclinations, from what fat content was milked by her cow - mother or cows - grandmothers (on the father and mother). Also the season affects. In the winter it is more dense, fatter, is more liquid in the summer. Especially densely happens on a lactation outcome. Also separate forages influence. Zhirneet milk when feeding by bean herbs, especially siliculose, or their grain, a clover, cake, meal.
Feeding of cows in personal economy differs from their feeding on public farms a little. Feed with what is more available. Here an approximate winter diet of a cow with a yield of milk of 12 l in days (kg): hay meadow - 8, straw summer - 4, a silo from raznotravya - 5, potatoes - 4, fodder beet - 3, carrots red fodder - 2, food waste - 8, the grain remains - 0,5, bran wheat - 1. Add salt to this diet - 70 g. In the summer the cow who weighs 450 - 500 kg with the same yield of milk, needs about 50 kg of green forages. More than grass half-centner in a day to a cow not to eat so if yields of milk are higher than 12 l, others should feed up something, for example food waste.
Give to drink in the winter warm water, and in the summer - cool and it is the is best of all in plenty. When water is always available to animals, they drink it much more. If the forage was rough, dry, and did not allow to drink, the chewing gum at a cow is late. Good in it it is not enough - the forage is acquired worse. And drank after feeding, laid down, at once and began to ruminate. And here do not disturb her. Such order at cows.
Among cows there are big akkuratistka. On an untidy floor will not lay down for anything, standing will suffer better. And to owners, it seems as if in revenge, will give short milk in the evening - the order was broken and it has an adverse effect on efficiency.
At the good owner in a shed in the opposite side from a feeding trough the manure flute in a floor is made. In it it is easy to sweep away sewage therefore - that in a stall at a cow is always pure. From a flute manure is dumped through a window outside, and there on freedom to clean or store it it is already easier. In homestead farms seldom you will see the tidied-up shed. “ Once! “ - owners justify themselves, And it is necessary to equip for rest of a cow the place slightly above. To make such polat with an easy bias towards a flute and on them it will be always dry.
Cows do not love when in a shed a darkness. Windows have to be located above her eyes, and the area of a floor surpasses the area of a zastekleniye by 10 - 15 times. What sizes the cow needs a shed? Here room volume is important. For it there will be 18 - 20 sq.m enough. And the most important - a cow - not the car for production of milk and calfs, and the living being. Before to make something, think, and it would be cozy to you in such conditions. Good luck!