What secret sense was enclosed by Socrates in the last words?
Execution of the philosopher recognized as the oracle of the Delphic temple the wisest of ancient Greeks are born from time immemorial by a gloom of cruel injustice of injust court after restoration of democracy in Athens.
In solar spring morning 399 B.C. in Athens the well-known process of Socrates prepared for opening, and all active man`s population of the city hurried to the place of jurisdiction, having a presentiment of sharp fight in polemic of the seventy-year-old philosopher with the accusers.
The government of thirty tyrants led by Krity, Socrates`s pupil established by Sparta after defeat of Athenians in twenty-seven years` Peloponnessky war was just overthrown by popular uprising.
The expelled democrats and among them the rich skinner Anit hating the philosopher for the fact that it was derided by it during public dispute returned to the city and for refusal of the son after conversations about morality to inherit the father`s profession.
Three citizens of Athens (the poet - the tragedian Melet, the rich and influential democrat Anit, the handicraftsman and the speaker Likon) accused Socrates of denial of gods and depravity of youth inventing of new deities. The first made a speech at process as Melet, declared how the antique historian Diogenes Laertsky reports that Socrates “ does not honor gods who are honored by the city, and enters new deities and it is guilty that the youth corrupts, and the death " has to be punishment;.
Likon and Anit repeated charge of the beginning poet and too demanded the death penalty. In reply Socrates delivered the speech disproving far-fetched claims to him, proving that not he, and the philosopher Anaksagor “ explained scientifically the heavenly phenomena “. But it was not wanted to be trusted - everything was predetermined.
Socrates found by a majority vote jurors guilty had to impose himself sentence. He could offer the exile or a penalty as a penalty, but declared that he is not guilty of anything and deserves remuneration in the form of a free lifelong lunch with Olympic champions or a symbolical penalty in one mine. Shouts of indignation, the indignant stamping by legs of attendees worked on five hundred one judges, and they determined by vote a punishment measure...
Socrates was condemned to death, but delayed reduction of a sentence for a month from - for departures on the eve of the ship on the island Delos with annual religious mission. After announcement of a sentence Socrates said: “ You go from here to live, and I - to die. And that from this it is better, it is unknown to anybody, except god “. In the last speech the philosopher told that he of death is not afraid that in memory of people will remain the wise man that his accusers will surely suffer. He was a prophet in Plutarch`s biographies, according to which his offenders hung themselves …, of
Socrates claimed as if he since the childhood heard an internal voice by means of which god declined it to reasonings. The Athenian philosopher was born in 469 B.C. in the suburb of the capital of Attica in the handicraftsman`s family - the scabbler of Sofronisk and the midwife Finareta. In youth he visited lessons of eloquence and conversation of the woman - the philosopher from Miletus Aspasiya and refused to inherit the father`s profession, having decided to be engaged in oratory seriously.
He was thirty seven years old when Peloponnessky war began and it was necessary to execute a military duty. It it is brave, according to historians, battled in three fights of the first eleven-year period to the conclusion in 421. B.C. Nikiyeva of the world. periodasokrat did not participate in battles of the second, he was an assessor in council of five hundred and more than once, facing unjustified cruelty in trials, opposed to unfair punishments even at the time of government of thirty tyrants after defeat of Athens.
Socrates spent all the free time in philosophical disputes, it had many pupils, it did not take from anybody money for training. He was not included into one party and could talk to any person on subjects of morals, knowledge of truth and justice. The person was considered by Socrates as a moral being, he considered that distinction between the good and evil is not relative, and is absolute, claimed that the world is not learned, and it is possible to learn only soul of the person and put it, and the problem of philosophy consists in it.
Thirty days there was Socrates chained in a chain waiting for execution until the ship returned from the island Delos to Athens. His loyal friend Kriton bribed to the guard and suggested to run, but the philosopher refused, having told that the law should be respected though he was condemned unfairly. Socrates spent the last day with the pupils, and only Platon did not come to say goodbye to it from - for diseases or …
U it was a lot of time for reflections, and pupils heard his last reasonings on dying for mortal life, about release of immortal soul from its mortal corporal cover. He said goodbye to the wife, the three sons and went to the room for ablution. After bathing the executioner with a poison bowl from a tsikuta approached it and asked not to damn it. Socrates calmed the servant, drank poison and began to expect it action, having warned the pupils that it would like to die in reverential silence, without hearing their sobbings.
When at Socrates the stomach grew cold, he called up the faithful pupil Kriton and gave a strange request: “ Kriton, it is necessary to sacrifice a rooster to Asclepius “. It were the last words of the great philosopher before death which secret sense is still not solved. One researchers claim as if Socrates wanted to emphasize with the last words that the death of a body is a recovery of soul, others that death - recovery from the illness called by life the third called them just impudence of the philosopher. Platon attributed to the teacher the views of immortality of soul.
God of doctoring of the Greek mythology Asclepius (Romans have a Doctor) raised even the dead, but Socrates added nothing to the request. The rooster was usually sacrificed to god of medicine for recovery. Perhaps, the great philosopher wanted to thank Asclepius for healing of soul for spiteful anger for the injustice made with it, with hatred to the offenders?
It is possible, dear reader to decipher the last words of Socrates and as the message to mankind: to sacrifice to god of doctoring of a loud, cocky rooster that it cured souls of people of madness of self-destruction, cruelty “ spiritual hibernation “ …