How the distaff and a weaver`s camp became museum pieces?
of Years twenty - thirty back in a room of other rural log hut it was possible to see the weaving loom. The few old women made popular then doormats - “ paths “ from print rags. Tourists were thrilled - and these bought up “ works of folk art “.
In the 19th century, up to 1870 - x, weaving was one of the most widespread crafts, especially in the center of Russia and in the Russian North. Weaver`s “ manufactories “ at that time only began to arise. And the homespun cloth, according to peasants, then had almost no competition.
Of course, distribution of commodity trade on provinces was uneven. Were engaged in weaving with a sales objective of a cloth where there were cheap raw materials - a linen yarn that is where in large volumes cultivated flax (and flax - dolgunets, owing to the natural properties, could grow only where it is not hot where soils a humus are rather poor, - the Tver, Yaroslavl, Vologda, Arkhangelsk provinces).
Only the flax which is grown up in country farms was necessary raw materials for house weaving. Flax was “ female “ culture. All works put on technology carried out, generally women. By the way, and the chest with a dowry country girls formed of flax and at the expense of the income from linen products (the father allocated to daughters under flax the earth in the plots, and those, between other affairs - field and house - flax grew up, cleaned, processed, spun and weaved, or gave to the father for sale at fairs a yarn, and the income besides went on a dowry).
Process of preprocessing of flax consists of a terebleniye, a soaking, drying, scutching. Also aimed to release silvery linen fibers from a plant stalk.
After preprocessing the flax fiber was necessary spryast. Spinning was made on a crest or on the kuzhel (which was a horizontal board on which one end the rack which is coming to an end instead of a crest with a semicircular thickening is vertically strengthened. Reeled up flax povesma on it). If spinning was made on a crest - the flax fiber was combed before spinning on its teeths.
Distaffs (or spinning wheels as sometimes they are called at museum excursions on exhibitions from history of country life) used the very few. However, judging at least by how the remains of such distaffs on attics of rural old houses are widespread, subsequently these distaffs extended. And it is not casual. Though they are much dearer, than other devices for spinning, but the yarn from a distaff was better, more exactly, labor productivity was higher. Besides, on a distaff it is easy to roll out a yarn in threads.
Masters sold a linen yarn or in a severe look, or previously bleached, or at themselves used a yarn on production of a cloth.
That was the weaving loom, probably, many know. The museums saw! Machines (camps) were, one may say, standard, handicraftsmen were engaged in their production besides.
The novina, about 20 arshins long (on its production 4 - 5 days left) was production of a tkanye. After removal of a novina it should have been bleached. Bleaching consisted in liming (soaking of a novina in a korchaga with boiled water and ashes and a vystaivaniye in this solution in the furnace), washing, keeping of the novina moistened with soap solution in the furnace. The final bleaching was made when canvases spread on a meadow, moistening fabric with cold water from time to time. It was necessary for success of this process that there was sunny and warm weather, then bleaching took 15 - 20 days.
At this domestic industry, as well as at many others, was a little chances to escape. Already then, at the end of the 19th century, peasants inclined that it is more favorable to sell flax on lnopryadilny manufactories (especially as in the district city there was such manufactory - “ Rolma “) but not to make house canvases. Factory “ muslin and sitets if not the low cost, then distinctness and purity of finishing began to compete strongly “ with products of house weaving as reported in 1880 - x years territorial statisticians in documents on research of domestic industries.
Earnings of the handicraftsmen who were engaged in spinning and a sucheniye of threads, a tkanye of canvases were insignificant, fluctuated from 40 to 4 rubles a year. Simpler and it was more profitable to hand over a flax fiber “ to beacons “ or “ to fists “ - to the people specializing in collecting on country farms and delivery to a raw materials lnomanufaktura.
Weaving, especially - difficult, patten - became long ago occupation exclusively factory.
Gradually production of a yarn and homespun canvases for production of clothes was replaced by that domestic industry that in very insignificant sizes which - where there were as early as years twenty - fifteen - production on " weaving looms; paths “ from bobbin threads and the old chintz cut by narrow strips. Tourists were thrilled - and these bought up “ works of folk art “. Now and it it is possible to see only in the museums - in those which practice “ the master - the classes “ on ancient country crafts.