Rus Articles Journal

How opened the Neptune?

Discovery of Uranium put before scientists a number of questions who led to the theory about existence of one more planet revolting the Uranium movement.

The English mathematician and the astronomer John Kouch Adams calculated position of the unknown revolting planet in the fall of 1845. But researches of the young scientist (Adams then was 26 years old) were not taken seriously from - for a number of misunderstanding. And Adams did not seek to inform of results of the researches the public by all means.

In the sky of the new planet Ourben Jean Joseph Leverie - one of the largest French astronomers of the 19th century dealt with summer of the same year with a problem of search of situation. And in November, 1845 Leverie publishes the first article devoted to Uranium. It anew builds the theory of the movement of this planet, specifying all earlier conducted researches. Continuing strenuously work, Leverie presents on June 1, 1846 to Academy of Sciences the second article about Uranium in which second part gives the preliminary solution of a task of calculation of an orbit of the new planet.

George Biddel Erie (the director of the Greenwich observatory) and James Chellis (the director of the Cambridge observatory) did not attach significance to Adams`s researches in due time. But having examined Leverie`s works, they secretly begin searches of the new planet on July 29, 1846 though refuse a similar request of Leverie.

Meanwhile Leverie continues to work actively, and on August 31, 1846 presents the third article in which achieves main objectives of the researches to the Parisian Academy of Sciences, obtaining final data on elements of an orbit of the unknown planet and on its estimated situation in the sky.

However, with delight accepting Leverie`s opening, neither the French, nor English astronomers are going to organize searches of the new planet. Leverie in search of an opportunity introductions of the work in practice of supervision he addresses to same young, as well as, to the German astronomer Johann Gottfried Gallet, the assistant to the Berlin observatory.

Halle on September 23 (right after obtaining the letter from Leverie) sits down at the telescope of the Berlin observatory. For this purpose he needed to get permission to unplanned supervision from the director of observatory Johann Franz Enke who at first refused to the young scientist. But Gallet insisted on the, and Enke everything is conceded.

One more young man - the German student Heinrich Louie D`Arre - expressed big desire to take part in searches of the unknown planet. Halle took it as the assistant. Having sent the telescope to the necessary point of the sky, Halle at first did not see anything similar to the planet. It is unknown, than supervision of Halle would end if not resourcefulness of his assistant D`Arre who suggested to use the celestial map, and right there, during supervision, to compare provisions of observed heavenly bodies and recorded on the card.

For this purpose the detailed and accurate celestial map which was not neither at English, nor at the French astronomers was required, - it was available only in the Berlin observatory. Having taken the card, Halle and D`Arre continued supervision. Gallet called in turn stars (their situation, gloss), and D`Arre marked them on the map. Soon, namely exactly at midnight, Gallet called a star which on the card was not. Its situation only not much more differed from that which was calculated according to Leverie. Having checked the supervision and the next night, in the presence of Enke, in the morning on September 25 Gallet writes Leverie`s letter, confirming the fact of opening of the planet.

Later the English astronomers bethought and tried to prove that superiority of calculation of coordinates of heavenly position of the new planet belongs to England. But this attempt was met by the most cruel repulse of the French Academy.

Galilei at supervision of satellites of Jupiter on December 28, 1612 and on January 28, 1613 found change of relative provision of two stars. Only in 366 years, in 1979, it became clear that one of these stars there was a Neptune.

Here and happens: someone will overlook something at once, and the truth emerges then only in centuries. Be vigilant!

In material the used data from the book Searches and opening of planets (Grebennikov A. E., Ryabov Yu. A. - M.: Science, 1984. - 224 pages).