How to motivate personnel to effective work?
With formation of market mechanisms in the countries meeting them officially a little more than one and a half decades to us from the West began to get much about what many of us do not know today and are afraid to ask. One of such things - motivation of personnel. The problem, as they say, difficult, confirmation to what can serve a set of the theories setting as the purpose the answer to a question of ways and methods of use of labor with the maximum, other things being equal, return which were born in the same West.
In Soviet the Union to effective work for the benefit of the Homeland it was not necessary to think of motivation of people. In - the first, the role was played here by education: began to impart to the child love for the country nearly right after his birth, and result, it is necessary to tell, it seems, was: whatever you may say, today it is, at first sight, much less thorough patriots. Or perhaps I am mistaken. Here to remember an ideology role in a great cause of education of the true citizen, but we will not be. The speech not about it.
In - the second if it is necessary, it was easy to provide motivation, having threatened with special attention of the public to the person who is beaten out out of operation “ correct “. The public censure was the effective tool. Not less effective means in actual fact paid public attention, but with other sign. The plan overfulfillment, entry into ranks of leaders of production, an award, gratitude, an honor roll - for the sake of it not only costed to much, but also there was a frank wish to live and create.
As a result everything came to the end which the majority did not want, but which as economists speak, was for various reasons simply inevitable. One of the obvious reasons which ordered Soviet socially - economic system long to live, was “ equalization “ which already the existence denied value (at least, directed it to zero) the economic incentives which are reduced finally to such concept as “ welfare “ which connection with growth of efficiency of work of the worker it is easy to guess. It was a mistake. Even in conditions when the ghost of the market does not dominate over minds of people when the collectivism is proclaimed over individualistic, “ bourgeois “ aspirations of certain companions when in bright future it is trusted most of all - even then the person does not hurry to forget about himself in general.
The western researchers for obvious reasons had to doubt prevalence in the person of the collectivist beginning over the individualism adjoining on egoism (at us between two last safely would put an equal-sign) more reasons and opportunities. It developed into creation of theories of motivation of workers which were right there adopted and studied by managers in the western companies. A distinctive feature of all existing developments in this direction is their surprising similarity in the essence. Here we will concern two famous theories of motivation of personnel.
The most known is, perhaps, Maslou`s pyramid. It consists of five steps, each of which is responsible for a certain level of needs of the person. The first level is presented by physiological requirements (in food, water, the dwelling). If these requirements are satisfied, then, according to A. Maslou, the person switches the attention to the following level (need for safety). Following above on this pyramid, we will find the third (a social group of requirements: friendship and acceptance by people around), the fourth (need for respect and recognition from people around, achievement of various purposes) and the fifth (need for disclosure of creative potential and the maximum self-realization for society and different spheres of public life) levels of the structure built by Abraham Maslou.
Frederik Gertsberg developed the theory of satisfaction from work. In it it divided all factors exerting impact on the person, on two groups: hygienic and actually motivating. If hygienic requirements are not satisfied, then as the author of this theory claims, the individual plunges into a condition of a dissatisfaction with work irrespective of influence of factors of the second group. The satisfaction of hygienic requirements means simply “ lack of a dissatisfaction “ that, being connected to positive influence on the person of actually motivating factors, provides as a result arrival that he begins to experience positive emotions from the works.
If to try to impose two theories at each other, then it is detectable that they decently are combined: hygienic requirements according to Gertsberg (include a monetary salary, working conditions) correspond as a first approximation to the first three steps in Maslou`s pyramid while two remained steps of a pyramid represent in most cases that Gertsberg referred to the motivating requirements (i.e. a possibility of career development, recognition, achievement of goals etc.) .
It is clear, that the theory - yet not practice, precisely as practice - any more not the theory. The formalized reflection which the problem of motivation of personnel received in scientific works of the western researchers cannot guarantee exact performance of the described mechanisms for one and all people. Moreover, the situation when the average individual, being only result of calculations on the calculator, is not embodied for 100% in one of consisting of flesh and blood of representatives of the sort homo sapiens is quite normal.
However in the course of scientific researches data undertake from real life, measurements are taken of the real people, and generalization attempt becomes later. Therefore, providing to the obtained data a strong scientific basis, it at the same time almost guarantees expediency to trust in the conclusions drawn during studying and definitely not to refuse what the same Maslou and Gertsberg worked not one day on.
Naturally, the knowledge of needs of the worker and value of each of them will not allow the head to speak about the found way to momentary splash in productivity at the enterprise. It has to be theoretical base. But on this basis the manager already has to build the strong building of solid collective in which to each performer - the approach, at decision-making is considered their probable influence on each member of labor collective, and in case of unpleasant situations the option of the best and painless exit from difficulty has to be studied.
But it is reached only through preliminary comprehension of the IDENTITY of each worker. Any person has the unique set of values of such parameters as social and marital status, education, experience, natural bents and talents, expressivity and many other characteristics which are usually consolidated in the uniform concept under the names “ character “ and “ mentality “. But to trample on elements and at the theoretical level to make a mistake which then half a year to look for and not to find in the practical actions and decisions (we will tell, to attract prospect of career development when the person has every day a problem, than to eat) is to give up as a bad job the rukovoditelsky dreams about strong, harmonious and, the main thing, effectively working collective.
People - they not cars...