What historical value industrial revolution had?
Term “ industrial revolution “ the J was entered. Forms in 1837 in work under the name “ History of political economy “. The word " entering it; revolution “ sees quite justified taking into account an essence and value of this complex phenomenon. It can be put in one row with two others “ revolutions “ human history - neolytic (marked transition from natural to the making economy) and scientifically - technical (about which started talking in 1970 - e) .
It is known that revolution is the revolution which is usually connected with voyenno - political revolution which change of ruling regime and withdrawal pains of the existing social and economic structure follows. “ Industrial revolution “ differs not in aggressive nature of the transformations happening in society though she mentioned all spheres of public life without exception.
Industrial revolution caused radical transformations in human society. So, its technical aspect consisted in formation of mechanical production, attraction to process of production of new power sources, development of automobiles and communication. To speak about “ revolutions “ became possible without fear to be mistaken after cars began to make cars (i.e. production of the industrial equipment was automated).
The economic aspect, first of all, found reflection in movement of the center of economic life from agrarian sector in industrial. It was accompanied also by the perturbations in social structure embodied in the accelerated urbanization, modification of class composition of society (emergence of working class), emergence of prerequisites for formation of industrial society.
Industrial revolution earlier, than in other countries, began and ended in England (lasted approximately since 1760 - x for 1830 - e) . In France the period “ revolutionary “ transformations in socially - economic way were 1810 - 1860 - e, in Germany - 1830 - 1870 - e. In the USA industrial revolution began in the first decade of the 19th century
In order that transition to a machine way of production with all the transformations of technical, economic and social character accompanying it became possible, there had to be a complex of factors. Accumulation of enough the capital, formation of the financial institutions ready to provide on the terms of the loan temporarily available funds for investment into development of economy, the statement as the fundamental principle of free trade, a number of the important inventions following one one and making the contribution to transition from manufactories to factories became those.
Those which were directed to increase of efficiency of cotton production (" were key inventions without which it is difficult to imagine all revolution at first; flying shuttle “ Kay, a mechanical distaff of Hargreaves, the mechanical weaving loom of Kartrayt), then the turn for a steam-engine of Uatt (1784) came . Emergence of the engine of Stefenson and the steamship created by Fulton marked the beginning “ centuries of iron and " steam;. The first railroad which connected the American cities of Ohio and Baltimore in 1830 was constructed.
In each country industrial revolution had the features which allowed to speak about differences of this process in the different countries. In France, for example, the mark was left by the urbanization passing rather slow rates and the narrowness of domestic market accompanying it which caused not such precipitancy of transformations, as in the same England. In Germany rather late terms of the beginning of withdrawal from the economy based on manual skills which, however, played advantage of this country were distinctive features: they allowed to equip the German factories with the latest equipment for that time.
It is also necessary to note rates at which production in Germany (from 1850 to 1870 grew. growth in the heavy industry made more than 3 times). As for the USA, here specifics of industrial revolution are caused by a significant role which was played by the foreign capital, the labor which was replenished at the expense of the increasing flow of immigrants and also development of a network of the railroads (which allowed to reduce influence of the sizes of the country on intensity of the economic relations between its various parts). The invention of factory system became exclusively American contribution to the common cause of the movement to more productive and effective economy.
The complex socially - economic changes in structure of economies of those countries where it took place turned out to be consequence of industrial revolution. Formation of mechanical production meant emergence and increase in surplus of the goods made in the states which became on industrial rails. It, in turn, became very essential factor in development of world economic communications, formation of the world market and served as the prerequisite to formation then in the 20th century of world economy. Strengthening of operation by the countries - mother countries of the colonies as sources of resources for production and sales markets in which violently " became the reverse of the medal; it was pushed “ production English (if it is about the British Empire) factories.
Then - that life absolutely another began …