How discovered Uranium?
Now, when scientists “ close “ Pluto when we have an opportunity to study other Galaxies when people already looked from space at Earth, I want to talk about Uranium, the seventh planet of Solar system.
Of course, all of us once studied astronomy, read about opening of planets. But why I want to tell about Uranium? Because Uranium history from the first opening days and to the middle of the 19th century is a chain of the scientific misunderstanding and riddles solved by means of interesting achievements.
The foundation was laid by William Gershel who, at the first supervision, took Uranium for a comet. The first official statement of Gershel about his opening in the London Royal Society was entitled on April 26, 1781 “ Message on a comet “. Many famous astronomers tried to calculate on supervision of a new celestial body for it the parabolic orbit characteristic of comets.
All comets opening until then (except Galley`s comet) moved on parabolas or hyperboles, close to them. In a case with new “ comet “ it turned out that its theoretical movement on any such orbit has to be much faster, than its actually observed movement. A settlement and apparent motion coincided no more, than on several days, and then a new comet quickly “ lagged behind “ from settlement data. New “ comet “ it was strange. It almost did not change gloss, and its fast approach to the Sun, characteristic of comets, it was not found.
In May, 1781 the French astronomer Jean Saron according to supervision calculated that this “ comet “ is much further from the Sun, than it was supposed. The same year the St. Petersburg academician Leksel, analyzing supervision of a new celestial body, found that it moves around the Sun approximately around, with a radius of 19 and. e. and with the period about 84 years. After that all, at last, realized that the new celestial body is a planet.
But the first riddle there was no last. Coincidence of the movement of Uranium to the calculated circular orbit was only approximate. Supervision became more exact. It was obvious that it is worth looking for an elliptic orbit. But then it seemed that the solution is obvious: the movement of Uranium is influenced by others, known, planets long ago: Saturn, Jupiter etc. of
B 1820 the French astronomer Alexis Buvar described the observed movement of Uranium in 1781 - 1820. But this theory dispersed from old supervision. Several hypotheses which could explain unclear behavior of Uranium were made:
1. Uranium in the movement tests gas resistance - the dust environment which fills interstellar space.
2. Uranium possesses the satellite which is not opened still which causes observed deviations.
3. Shortly before discovery of Uranium by Gershel there was a collision of this planet or its rapprochement with a comet which sharply changed the Uranium orbit.
4. The law of an attraction of Newton does not remain absolutely fair at such long distances from the Sun on what there is an Uranium.
5. One more, still not open and not known planet exerts impact on the movement of Uranium.
The first three hypotheses disappeared at once, without having sustained elementary criticism. If the Uranium movement was influenced considerably by resistance of the interplanetary environment, then it as well would influence the movement of all celestial bodies in Solar system. Calculations and supervision showed that satellites do not render almost any influence on the provision of Uranium. The hypothesis of rapprochement or collision of Uranium with a comet also does not maintain criticism.
The fourth hypothesis calling in question Newton`s law of gravitation was more serious and had basic character. But nevertheless doubts could be. And most of scientists was attracted by the fifth theory. By the end 30 - x years of the XIX century of research on a problem of the new planet ripened. They only expected worthy performers.
Uranium for several decades was the central figure and a starting point of development of astronomy. And studying the movements of this planet, scientists could open the Neptune, the eighth planet of Solar system. Trust in the forces!
In material the used data from the book “ Searches and opening of planets “ (Grebennikov A. E, Ryabov Yu. A. - M.: Science, 1984. - 224 pages).