For whom Jawaharlal Nehru " wrote; View of the World history “?
In eleven years prior to the beginning of the twentieth century in Allahabad in the fighter`s family under the slogan “ svaradzha “ (“ the board “) for national independence of India Motilala Nehru was born the boy. It was called Jawaharlal, gave good primary education, and then sent to study in Harrow and Triniti - college of the Cambridge university.
In 1912 Jawaharlal Nehru returned to India, gained popularity, working as the lawyer, fell in love with the girl sharing his views, the beauty Kamala married, and on November 19, 1917 they gave birth to the only daughter who was given the beautiful name “ Indira “ (Moon of India). One year prior to the daughter`s birth he got acquainted with Mohandas Gandhi and his doctrine about achievement of independence of India in the peace, nonviolent way.
Seven years later Jawaharlal Nehru was already the secretary general of the Indian National Congress (INC) party and one of chairmen of Allakhabadsky municipality. He participated in the Congress of the oppressed people in Brussels in 1927 as the delegate of INK and till 1947. it was pursued by the authorities, having spent over ten years in prisons. Suffering at the beginning of 30 - x years in the conclusion from the compelled gap with a family, he decided to exert at least in letters impact on education and self-education of the daughter Indira, stating the opinion of the World history.
It described historical events in a fascinating form, giving the little-known facts and giving own estimates. With a statement of history Jawaharlal Nehru`s friends knew of letters of the daughter, and to it suggested to publish them. And three volumes of letters to the daughter from prison with a free statement of the World history for youth which exerted a great influence on self-education not only Indira, but also other young people were published, bringing up in them the active resistance to oppression, rejection of tyranny, the international fascism and militarism.
The first volume included seventy eight letters to the daughter and it comes to an end with the description of opening of maritime routes. The hundred forty ninth letter of the second volume reported about revolution and renunciation of the tsar in Russia, summed up the results of World War I: calculation “ general human losses “ expenses on the war destroying human lives which total amount made over fifty billion pounds sterling. Gave to the war of Nehru such assessment: “ For many years wars led to the fact that the warring nations came down to barbarity … People got used to violence and to deliberate misrepresentation, they were full of hatred and spirit of a revenge “.
“ Last letter “ of August 9, 1933 directs the young reader to further self-education: “ … it is not history, these are only fleeting sketches of our long past. If history interests you if charm of history concerned you a little, you will find a way to many books which will help you to untangle threads of last eras “.
In “ Postscript “ of November 14, 1938. Nehru gave the developed picture of historical events for the last five years, paying once again attention “ on huge contradictions and rivalry in the modern world, on growth of fascism and Nazism and on the approaching war shadow “ on the world conflict between democracy and fascism. He understood that “ decisions in the world scale are necessary. Meanwhile situation continuously worsens, and in the world war and violence " dominate;.
Indira, her grandmother Swarup Rani no Nehru and mother Kamala there was away from fight for national independence of India. Jawaharlal Nehru`s daughter became the student of the public university opened by the famous Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore, but after death of mother in 1936 went to Europe. Indira entered the Oxford university, however from the beginning of World War II returned to India, married in 1942 the lawyer Feroz Gandhi and two years later gave birth to the first son Rajiv, and then and the second - Sanjaya. She was a beloved wife, happy mother, but did not forget the father`s lessons in letters, “ containing a free statement of history for youth “ also helped it with fight for independence of the homeland.
The good knowledge of the World history, psychology, ability is correct to estimate a political situation, to defend consistently and purposefully interests of the country made the father and the daughter leaders of the people. On August 15, 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru became the prime minister - the minister of the dominion of India and kept this post after finding of independence by her in January, 1950. His teacher, Mahatma Gandhi, opposed Indo-the Muslim riots which began after the partition of India into two states (The Indian union and Pakistan) and was killed in 1948 by members of Hindu extremist group. Jawaharlal Nehru will remain forever in the history as “ builder of new India “. He wanted to leave for a while in April, 1958 policy, “ to collect the thoughts “ however situation on borders forced it to refuse these intentions.
Indira accompanied the father on foreign trips as the personal secretary, became the leader of the party, but in 1960 transferred a heavy nervous breakdown after death of the husband. Four years later it one more strongest blow expected: On May 27 died in New - Delhi the father and the teacher, Jawaharlal Nehru. In two years Indira became the prime minister - the minister, but there was no time “ to collect the thoughts “ and the power - the temptress tempts to use force for resolution of conflicts. Elections of 1977 brought defeat to sixty-year-old Indira Gandhi and split of party.
Jawaharlal Nehru`s daughter did not leave policy: she declared a party creation of the supporters of INK (I) and opened own house for visit by its people.
three years Later it returned to the power, but gave the order in June, 1984 (the operation “ Blue star “) to kill the sikhsky extremists who occupied the Gold Temple in Amritsar, having changed the principles of nonviolent policy of Mohandas Gandhi and the father: “ War always an awful thing, but civil war is even more terrible “. Firefight destroyed about one thousand people and generated new violence: On October 31, 1984 Indira Gandhi was killed by two Sikhs from her protection, having let out in the elderly woman twenty bullets …
Indira`s Father at the end of the unique work, “ View of the World history “ noticed: “ As at the time of Socrates, we live in a century of questions, but these questions are set not in one city as it was in Athens, - they are put before the whole world “.
Isn`t that so, dear reader, we live also now in a century of questions? Also it is necessary to know well the World history to find on them the correct answers …