As World War I generated “ patronage help “?
of the Practician of use at agricultural works of the so-called patronage help - at all not the invention of Soviet period. This involvement of people, far from agriculture, to forcibly - to voluntary work originates in the years of World War I.
Hundreds of thousands of peasants appeared at the front. Agriculture experienced fair difficulties from - for shortages of working hands. Establishments on which care about peasants - zemstvoes in no small measure lay undertook to solve a problem.
I will show volumes of the arisen need for labor on one of counties of the Yaroslavl region (the center of Russia) - Rostov (the center - the city of Rostov - not Rostov-on-Don!) .
By the beginning of spring of 1915 - to the first sowing campaign of a wartime - about 14 thousand peasants were sent to the front. In the fall, in a harvest-time, 764 prisoners of war worked for 210 employers in the county. Employers paid in a territorial justice for each such worker monthly 10 rubles (on clothes of prisoners of war), monthly the employer gave to each worker 3 rubles (at the master`s food and the apartment).
Further the zemstvo could agree with military department - about attraction for agricultural works of the lower ranks of local garrison - to two hundred fifty people. The employer gave to each such worker in day on 75 kopeks (+ master`s harch).
These two groups “ organized “ workers were quite operated and worked well.
Having tried to involve in country farms of refugees (which by this time in the county it appeared to five hundred), the zemstvo failed. As the agronomist of one of rural sites reported, work of refugees appeared “ a little valid. Many of them preferred “ to idle “ than to receive decent earnings “.
In the same harvest harvest season of 1915 more “ valid “ there was an experience of attraction to agricultural works of pupils of a city gymnasium. Grammar-school boys together with peasants “ plowed, harrowed, filled up potatoes, cut and carried firewood... repaired the road and corrected the bridge... “. The source calls these grammar-school boys “ chiefs “ and their work - the patronage help. As it is necessary young, school students soul responded to country need in people - and went to help.
Of course, from all listed ways of attraction of additional labor in the agriculture of Russia which became scanty people any fully does not correspond to that tradition “ patronage help “ which developed in Soviet period.
Moreover, then there was no speech also preventing people from some main working and to carry them to fields - those who did not work in general went there. “ Battles for the harvest “ began considerably later. When all huge country was understood as one big collective farm, and it was possible without any doubts “ to lower orders “.
One more difference of what was at the beginning of the 20th century from what turned out in the middle of the same century, it is important to note. As not money, but orders of people forced to these most agricultural works (and not only to agricultural works...) - special language in which it was necessary to talk to the citizens sent was required to gather potato or to pull chicory. This language was also developed - bitter, grandiloquent. “ Battle for the harvest “ - from there, from this Soviet dictionary.