How our great-grandfathers, developing capitalism, cooked jam?
Development of capitalism in Russia, as we know, took place to be in the second half of the 19th century. It with might and main went exactly to that time when unforgettable Ilyich, living in exile, pored over hundreds of thin books of territorial statisticians. From these books Lenin took those figures and the facts which made so convincing (as also difficult for reading by simple people) this great book - “ Development of capitalism in Russia “.
These most territorial statisticians among other country crafts described also it - not it exotic (in difference, say, from a vykormka of capons or catching of crayfish) for Russia handicraft work of jam.
As it appears, besides the cookings of old-world landowners and peace city inhabitants which were fond of cooking, there were people taking from this cozy occupation kopek which not only protected ruble, but also gave quite good welfare to the industrialist.
And why and not to cook?! There are raw materials - “ Victoria “ raspberry, cherry, apples. There is a labor. For example, those hired workers that was plowed on owners of numerous kartofeleterochny zavodik. These workers were already allocated from city and rural inhabitants as a certain proletariat. There is a possibility of sale - in the neighboring city not each householder is engaged, along with own some trade - forge, in the tailor, metalwork, or trade, at last, - also gardening; meanwhile jam with tea - a food excellent.
And here the peasant - the industrialist near the kartofeleterochny zavodik constructs a shed; men, that together with it rub starch in the fall, hires for two summer months, buys sugar in the city, at line plant in the same city takes treacle (can, having agreed about delivery to this plant of starch!) after the district reports: “ Bear berry! “. And - bear.
On one it “ to " plant; I have data showing volumes of processing of raw materials. One and a half thousand poods " were accepted to a season; Victoria “ as much - raspberries, two thousand - cherries, eight thousand - apples. From other farms received plant to hundred poods of berries during a season!
It is clear, that for these berries at all not in the wood of the maid and woman ran. Then what under production peasants also in fair volumes these berries and fruit cultivated!
At plant the standard recipe was maintained: on three kilograms of berries there were six and a half kilograms of granulated sugar and half a kilogram - treacle. Was called turning out “ semi-sugar “ " jam; dessert “. Besides, cooked jam on one sugar, or on one treacle, but by such types I did not manage to find a compounding in archive.
Hard times - revolution, a surplus-appropriation system, death of the market - undermined bases of any industry. But hardly became possible - the peasant fell back into the old ways, began to get the capital in the habitual way again. Not agriculture - and processing of raw materials and production of the same jam. In 1928 this jam made according to the described recipe was on sale on 68 - 70 kopeks for kilogram.
Traded in jam in benches. Perhaps the industrialist or his relatives also held such benches - it happened very often, maybe, the dealer on requirement to the industrialist ordered jam - and it happened quite often.
In conclusion I will cite my dear book - the rural diary of Efim Dorosh “ The Rain in half with the sun “ (in which under the name of Raygorod Rostov Veliky is described). The quote - memoirs of the old man, serving as the salesman in " the boy; gastronomic “ - there just also sold to a bench jam.
“ Mikhail Vasilyevich remembers how he was sent for the first time to factory where the confectionery jam ordered by the owner cooked. He was tempted, dipped a hand into the basin which cooled down already, ate, ate, ate... It was not stopped. And then he rode three days the furnace and many years after that could not look at jam “. Cheerful picture!
By the way, in the same book it is described how in the middle of the 20th century (a time of writing Dorosh of the above-named rural sketches) the women working in collective farm at a certain moment for several days at once break from collective-farm works (and it, consider, the most busy season - summer, a haymaking!) also bring to the market in the regional center “ goods “ - the same “ vishenye “!
Several decades later after the end of the New Economic Policy and defeat of all these handicraftsmen from their zavodika - cherry orchards remained, cherry is. And here to cook jam is, as in the 18th century, destiny “ peace city inhabitants “. Capitalism - that did not become!