How trade of izrazechnik Krasavinykh lived and died?
I Worked about twenty years ago as the correspondent of the regional newspaper in the rural area. In business trips it was invited on to talk, tea - milk to drink, to taste pies the rural people, friendly and good-natured. And at many in log huts saw the ovens revetted with tiles - white with simple drawing: blue rombik, in its center - a flower. Modest drawing - and an oven looks elegantly, from it all house brightens.
Asked owners - most often the old women who are alone attaining the age in the dying villages - from where they have such ovens were them? In reply heard: the pier, from parents, from a husband`s family remained. Also called tiles - krasavinsky.
The same tiles were also in the local museum. Were called primitive, it was specified: were made at the beginning of the 20th century in the village of Sytino near the regional center.
To find out though some details about this handicraft work, it was required not only to look for to me data in local history literature, but also to work in archive.
The following became clear. There was production in this village entering limits of the Voshchazhnikovsky ancestral lands of counts Sheremetev, most likely, in the middle of the 19th century for three reasons. In - the first, of course, were available near the village of a deposit of clay, suitable for tiles. In - the second, the volost was rich with the wood - means, there was in prosperity a fuel for roasting of clay products. In - the third, sheremetevsky peasants here in 1796 were transferred from corvee on a quitrent - that encouraged them to look for an opportunity additional to agriculture (in general low-profitable here) earnings. Which received - from domestic industries, for example.
According to the local legend, based izrazchaty trade here in the first half of the 19th century the native of other county of the province - there traditionally manufactured pottery. Local clays did not suit for ware - but fitted for tiles.
It became clear that this worked izrazchaty zavodik several months a year, in the winter - in time, free from agriculture. Developed tiles of two types - “ white “ (4500 - 5000 pieces a year, on 2 rub 50 kopeks for one hundred) and “ yellow “ (2000 a year, on 1 rub 50 kopeks for one hundred). The revenue in a year made 138 - 155 rub. Clay and sand were local, minium, crystal, paints bought in the provincial and district centers. Production had sale in two counties - and next.
Zavodik himself was not God knows what big: the timbered construction covered by a shingle with the huge furnace for drying and roasting of tiles. There was, besides, a windmill for grind of paints. Except owners - brothers Krasavinykh, at the beginning of the 20th century hired workers - two persons worked at plant.
Having rummaged in activity of plant happened in 1918 - 1921 - ruin, civil war deprived of izrazechnik of both materials, and a sales market.
Among the documents found me in archive the document of 1928 - " was the most remarkable; The Diary issledovatelsko - museum works “ on volispolky, made during collecting exhibits for the museum opening in the volost center. It turned out that during these most “ works “ also exhibits - tiles at different production phases, from preparations to a finished product, tools and machines for production " were selected for the museum; tiles “.
The last archival document on plant Krasavinykh belongs in 1931. “ The Questionnaire on inspection of cottage industry “ testified: izrazechnik worked already with smaller scope at this time, than before revolution. There is no already special workshop, manufacture of tiles goes in the adapted house podklet. Necessary materials should be got not at a local fair any more, and nearly at the other end of the world - in Moscow.
The owner, together with the son - the teenager and one hired worker, - did 100 - 120 pieces of tiles a day, in a year 8 - 10 thousand pieces turned out. Hundreds of tiles the master defined prime cost in 13 - 14 rubles, sale price was 17 - 18 rubles. The sales market was limited already to limits of the county.
The end to tile plant Krasavinykh, probably, came in the same 1931 - this year the owner of a workshop was repressed. His brothers shared the same fate in 1933. It already - data from lists the rehabilitated, such lists were published in a local press at the end of the 20th century.
Now trade in that village, of course, does not exist. And villages, consider, no. In vicinities there were holes about which the few locals will explain curious - a pier, clay was dug there once.
The ovens revetted with tiles and stove benches in rural log huts remained a monument to the died trade and skilled peasants. Or - did not remain? Those old women became obsolete, their successors most often investigated tile facing of furnaces, sold to fans of homeliness...
Yes, most likely, those tiles still warm soul of someone. Krasavinsky tiles - they were lucky with a surname of the master!