National reading: whether the writer`s reader understands?
a fact of common knowledge - we read in the text often absolutely not that the author wanted to tell us. The reason is clear - we perceive the text, based on the life experience, the relation to a subject, on own attitude. Reaction to this or that text of children is especially in this regard indicative - for them fantastic plots are real, fantastic characters are more living than a domestic cat, adventures of heroes cause the strongest emotions; those accents which adults with the didactic purposes want to place for them, - are realized sometimes just paradoxically.
Technology of understanding of the text (and - misunderstandings between the writer and the reader!) cannot but occupy attention of scientists.
In the article “ National reading and the national reader in Russia of the end of the 19th century “ S. V. Obolenskoy (Odysseus. Person in the history. 1997. M, 1998. Page 204 - 232) is told about the research of the end of the 19th century undertaken by N. A. Rubakin (research came to the end with its book “ Etudes about the Russian reading public “. SPb., 1895). On the analysis of the data obtained by researchers S. V. Obolenskaya also tries to find the answer to that question which occupies her, but did not interest Rubakin and Alchevsk - “ as these people perceived [“ national readers “ - L. M.] read “.
Approximately at the same time attempt to study national reading was made by other collective - under the leadership of H. D. Alchevskaya. The three-volume edition " became a result of activity of this group; What to read to the people? The critical index of books for national and children`s reading “ (1884, 1889, 1906) .
The people for researchers, across Rubakin, - “ peasants, soldiers, factory workers, handicraftsmen, small traders, petty officials, salesmen, servants, sexual in taverns, competent and semiliterate, reading independently or listening to reading aloud “. About what literature this reader appreciated most of all, I already wrote (National reading: what is the mass basten book?) .
And here is how read? What was read? What was read?
I quote examples.
Peasants read L. Tolstoy`s story “ Socrates “. “ The Description of trial of Socrates causes bewilderment: what he is going to be condemned for execution for? Someone exclaims: “ For what? And that did not please with Christ Redeemer to people, here for what! “... One peasant told: “ It was not from ours, not the Christian? “. “ Yes unless you did not listen? - another objected. - Then Christ Redeemer was not born yet. If he lives at Christ Redeemer, he would be his most beloved pupil “.
Read “ Thunder-storm “ A. N. Ostrovsky - “ the young peasant interrupted a chtitsa with recognition that him “ the mother poyedy eats, and it, and the daughter-in-law; as will grab by a chuprina and drags, will not become exhausted yet, and he everything is silent if only did not touch the wife, on him on one all heart broke “... “.
Reaction to basten alteration of the story of G. Uspensky “ The Need dances, the need of a song sings “ with the description of how the conjurer thinks out the focuses. “ Evil spirit “ - one woman the tone which is not allowing doubts declared. “ Black magic “ - another told. From conversation on the railroad: “ People say that it not by the force moves “ - one spoke... “ And unless it from God! “ - noticed, having shrugged shoulders, another. “ Certainly, evil spirit “ - the third confirmed “.
The city girl of 17 years, having read A. F. Pogosky`s story “ Devilry “ (it is written for the purpose of exposure of superstitions) “ told that the book very much was pleasant to it, and began to retell excitedly all details about devils, witches, ghosts. The teacher asked it how she thinks, it is the truth? “ Certainly, truth! “ - the schoolgirl " answered;.
“ Read aloud “ Little Mermaid “ Andersen. One of listeners exclaimed: “ Here also say that there are no mermaids! “.
“ Power of darkness “ L. N. Tolstoy, reaction to the note of the author “ there passed 6 months “ caused surprise: “ probably, tells one about the author, he was not six months there, then arrived and learned as well as that “.
The competent peasant, itself reading books for the fellows villager, reports: “ If you tell them that it is the fairy tale that these athletes were not, then in reply you will receive: how was not? And here Ilya - that the Resident of Murom unless a lie? Was at the prince Vladimir, and the Nightingale - that the robber lived in the Bryansk woods, they and now impassable, and then were " even more;.
Interpreting words in the New Testament that “ birds heavenly do not sow, do not reap “ schoolgirls of sunday school (in the city!) explained: “ The Bird that, she uvorut to herself and will fly away, and the person will be caught and in a jail put “.
On N. Zasodimsky`s story “ Wordly dithat “ where it is told how the community adopted the foundling - the illegitimate child, listeners reacted: “ As it is possible! It is a reproach for ever! These are the most unfortunate children! Everyone them grebut. both mother, and the child reproach “ (about “ vnebrachnost “) . Actually story that “ in the village decided to bring up the world the foundling “ caused such reaction: listeners “ amicably laughed concerning such fantastic assumption of the author of the story “.
It is only the few examples of reaction of the national reader to book texts. But also from them evidence of the conclusions drawn by the researcher becomes clear. In - the first, she concludes, this “ unsophisticated “ the reader does not reflect on quality of the text and does not estimate it. In - the second, for such reader “ world of the text “ - the world live, it is perceived not as fiction, fictional characters for it - are live and real. In - the third, the author of the text is understood by such reader as the witness of described. In - the fourth, at souls of readers there are at the same time also an ingenuous faith in God, the reverential relation to “ divine “ to texts (it is frequent - at their very uncanonical understanding) - and beliefs in sorcery, magic rituals. Small children, perceiving texts, in fact, reproduce the same scheme.
These conclusions are very interesting and instructive. In many respects, it appears, they are characteristic and now for “ national “ readings. The recent comment to one of articles in " is indicative in this regard; To School of Life “: “ Just read Nick Perumov and St. Loginov`s book “ Black " blood;. There it is told about life of our far ancestors of times of early patriarchy. Far away there lived “ Women - Yogis “ - witch doctors, healers and healers once operating a sort, and then who are forced out by shamans - men.... Very much I recommend the book to all “.
You notice - obviously art the person perceives the book as information source “ about life of our far ancestors of times of early patriarchy “! As well as a century ago!