How the foundation to the Tretyakov gallery was laid?
on September 12, 1892 (on August 31 on old style), 115 years ago, the merchant Pavel Mikhaylovich Tretyakov addressed to the Moscow City Council with the offer. It was talked of that the city accepted in gift art gallery which was brought together by brothers Tretyakov - Pavel and Sergey - from the middle 50 - x years. In total in a collection there were 1287 pictures, 518 drawings and 9 sculptures of the Russian artists of the XVIII-XIX centuries, and also pictures, drawings and figurines of the Western European masters.
Pavel Mikhaylovich got the first pictures in 1853 when he needed to decorate house walls in Lavrushinsky Lane which Tretyakov` family got two years before. But these purchases had rather casual character, by the principle: “ it was pleasant - bought “. The special esthetic impression of a picture on guests was not made - too works were ill-matched. And then, someone advised the millionaire: if to take, then something integral, for example a painting collection. Either pictures of one artist, or the masters belonging to one era.
Already in the following, 1854, Tretyakov and arrived when did not stint purchase of 9 pictures of ancient Dutch masters at once. By the way, they became for Pavel Mikhaylovich a peculiar mascot: it decorated with them the rooms for many years. Most likely, looking at these canvases, the merchant thought approximately following: “ How many generations of Dutches carefully stored these masterpieces that today, several centuries later, people could admire them? And whether there is a lot of “ age-mates “ these cloths created by the Russian painters? By no means. Means, what leaves from - under brushes of the masters, needs to be collected and stored carefully … “
I expect, not all will agree with the similar assumption, but the fact remains: already two years later, on May 22, 1856, Tretyakov laid the foundation of a collection which will become world famous - future Tretyakov gallery. And the first two pictures were such: “ Temptation “ N. G. Shildera and “ Skirmish with the Finnish smugglers “ V. G. Khudyakova.
And further meeting was filled up by works of Trutnev, Savrasov, Bruni, Bryullov and other masters of a brush. By the way, this day is celebrated by the State Tretyakov art gallery as day of foundation though, I will repeat, broad masses of Russians could not examine works up to 1892.
And, Pavel Mikhaylovich initially knew that collected pictures will be transferred to a public inspection sooner or later. He called the meeting “ public, all available storage of fine arts “. Unlike other famous merchants who collected cloths only for themselves and the descendants.
It is necessary to notice that the collecting was not such easy business in those days: works of the Russian painters most often dispersed on numerous fans to buy pictures. Potentially the part of national wealth could get lost in small estates. And at the same time Pavel Mikhaylovich, having millions, tried to overpay to intermediaries never. He always kept saying: “ The more means you will save, the more pictures of works of arts can be collected “.
One of the first Tretyakov began to sponsor the beginning masters of a brush, found an opportunity to pay the order in the advance payment to recognized coryphaeuses. So, he helped I. Kramsky, V. Perov, F. Vasilyev, organized a shelter for the remained out-of-pocket widows and orphans of artists. “ If the artist has means, he is not hurt by the head in a tomorrow, then it has more opportunity to devote itself(himself) only to creativity “ - the patron fairly considered.
Still dispute on that did not cease: why Pavel Mikhaylovich decided to donate a collection to the city only after death of the younger brother Sergey who officially possessed a mansion in Lavrushinsky Lane together with the richest collection? About it we can only assume. But it is for certain known that shortly before the death younger Tretyakov intended to leave forever Moscow and to move to St. Petersburg. He even decided to consult with the elder brother concerning the price for real estate. And here Sergey Mikhaylovich did not manage to decide destiny of a collection: it obviously fluctuated - whether to transport all these riches to the capital (that was in principle very troublesome business) or to leave it in Moscow. He intended to arrive in gold-domed till August 30. But suddenly on Saturday, July 25, 1892, S. M. Tretyakov died. For the family knowing that Sergey Mikhaylovich especially was ill nothing it was a crushing blow.
All took this death very hard. Pavel Mikhaylovich tried to spend more time alone, deliberating much how to be farther. And only on August 31 made a final decision - to put the last end in transfer of a collection. The City Council let and not at once, but agreed.
It is necessary to add that Pavel Mikhaylovich endured the brother for only 6 years. He died on December 16, 1898. But his name was entered in the Russian history by gold letters. The Tretyakov gallery - without exaggeration, one of pearls not only Moscow, but also Russia in general …