National reading: what is the mass basten book?
Among other effects of release of peasants in 1861 were transformation of the peasant into the legal entity, finding of independence by it. And - as a result - there was a sharp need of the peasantry for mastering literacy. Having received ability to read the printing text by all the same what training - the person received also requirement the literacy constantly to support. This training, along with pleasure from obtaining information, was also delivered to the person by reading.
Read, generally a popular print. Basten sheets (Life has in the archive Galina Shchedrina`s article “ What is a popular print? “. But that article considers a popular print in general, but not books in particular) used for decoration of the dwelling - an engraving of the most various contents, with the small text, painted or is black - white. Basten books of which national home libraries consisted represented editions from thick paper, with the bright picture on a cover, the in16 format, in 16 - 32 - 48 - 96 pages.
“ The Russian basten culture furnishes the clue for understanding of nature of the Russian national culture “ D. Brooks in the capital work " noted; When Russia learned to read: Literacy and national culture, 1861 - 1917 (New - York, 1975) - first of all refers S. V. Obolenskaya in the work used by me for preparation of this article to this book “ National reading and the national reader in Russia of the end of the 19th century “ (Odysseys. Person in the history. 1997. M, 1998. Page 204 - 232).
Education of the people was not the purpose of authors and publishers of basten books, they were guided only by demand. Demand determined both the prices, and subjects, and genres, and circulations. And the last were the XIX EL, enormous for Russia. Brooks revealed 2 thousand names and 6 thousand editions of basten books only in libraries of Moscow and Leningrad - so is that it was necessary to live in collections of fans of old times. And how many it is unknown was gone behind decay how many it was destroyed in days of shocks and troubles! The value of these monuments of culture was not always realized.
The subject of such books was different - from “ divine “ (the most popular - lives of Saints) to “ heroic “ and “ romantic “. “ Fight of Russians with Kabardians, or the Fine magometanka dies on a coffin of the husband “ “ Guak, or Insuperable fidelity “ “ Adventures of aglinsky milord George and Friederike`s markgrafina - Louise “ “ The Lioness who brought up the imperial son “ “ Isay is the Ethiopian tsar “ “ Night at a Satan “ “ The Dead without coffin “ “ Murder at the bottom of the sea “ “ Dispute polushaltansky with poluyerofeichy “ “ Kako it befits to stand in God`s church “ “ Death of the inveterate sinner and just “ “ Terrible cave of the sorcerer “ “ Vanka Cain “ “ Tatar equestrian Epancha “ “ The Need dances, the need of a song sings “... This transfer of names raises an indulgent smile at the modern reader - and right there suggests an idea about modern “ basten “ to literature for the people, so?
Basten books of the 19th century are the works “ professionals “. Borzopistsa were engaged “ transposition “ for such editions of classical literature. “ Raw materials “ for a popular print there were works - Zhukovsky, Pushkin, Lermontov, Gogol, Shakespeare, E. Xiu. Names of writers were little-known or are not known at all. The researchers who were engaged in studying of national reading note, for example, that in answers to questionnaire questions the young factory worker conducts “ a notebook for a note of books “ where transfers briefly the impressions of read - and no time mentions who the author of this or that work; other fan of books from the people reports that he allowed the neighbor to esteem “ Don`s History - Quichotte Lamanchscy Chistyacov “ (Chistyacov is the publisher here).
Other books tried to compete with basten literature. The Russian intellectuals which are traditionally tormented with sense of duty before the people considered necessary to care for national education. Activity of the thick publishing house " founded at the initiative of L. N. is known; Intermediary “ - according to the edition of cheap books “ for the people “ - adapted. But also “ Intermediary “ tried to apply experience of lubochnik in the work on registration and distribution of the books. In general by the end of 1890 - x the number of such publishing houses “ national literature “ reached fifty - but with a popular print they could not sustain the competition.
Traditionally demand for basten literature was tried to be explained with a shortcoming “ good “ books, “ presents “. However the reality showed that not in it there was a reason of popularity of a popular print.
Modern researchers define popular basten literature - as the first “ post-folklore “ stage of mass art. S. V. Obolenskaya notes: “ She (popular literature) did not die and when Russia became competent, but changed forms, adapting to a new situation. It blossoms in the magnificent color also presently, though is unlike those rough cheap trashy books which were bought so willingly by national readers at the end of the 19th century “. This demand for such literature (both before, and now!) was defined by stability “ timeless consciousness of peasants “ according to L. N. Tolstoy. Lives in the person “ certain “ initial “ the initial taste corresponding mass “ it leans on “ ancient constants of attachments and preferences, archetypes of folklore perception “.
Stories about “ milord silly “ and “ fine magometanka “ quite satisfied needs of both peasants, and citizens - just become those - in reading fascinating, tearing off from the ordinary, in the stories filled with beautiful feelings, which are squeezing out a tear and coming to an end with a virtue celebration. However, all this attracts the mass reader in the popular literature and now.
How the national reader described in books - in the article " perceived; National reading: whether the writer`s reader understands? “