Why Galvani as guinea pigs used frogs?
on September 9, 1737, 270 years ago, in the Italian city of Bologna Luigi Galvani was born. As well as his many peers, the boy the most part of days vanished on the river Renault. Bathed, sunbathed, arranged heats on the speed and range. But in those “ teenage “ years Louis surprised companions to the fact that could listen to a big frog concert which kvakushka arranged nearly every day with the opened mouth.
Bologna - the former center of Etruscans - by right was considered as student`s paradise. The university was founded in a distant XI century here, and the faculty of the right where young people not only from Italy, but also from all Europe directed enjoyed special popularity. That is why parents Louis very much wanted that their son became the lawyer or the notary, famous to all Italy. But Galvani - younger interested absolutely other question: why intensity frog " depends; singing “? Why in one evenings chorus “ interrupts “ bell-ringings, and - warty disperse in others on the “ to minks “ also sit quietly how mice?
No, Louis, of course, also did not think to contradict parents, he all - came to university. But not on faculty of the right. It was attracted to itself by divinity. Well, in a family did not object: the person regarding as of paramount importance the Bible seldom turns on the way of a sin and disgrace. But even the closest people caught change in Luigi`s moods not at once - suddenly rocked him as a pendulum, towards natural sciences and medicine.
Partly the brilliant teacher of department of practical anatomy of university professor Galeazzi was guilty of it. The man of science so fascinatingly told about the processes happening in a human body that his many students were infected with idea “ No, you only look how all of us are arranged " inside;. And if to add to it two more factors: in - the first, professor was not buky and was not brought, and loved the pupils and was available, and, in - the second, willingly invited the curious youth to himself home when it was necessary to part for the weekend.
Of course, Galeazzi had the reason: at it several daughters grew up. Came across this rod and Luigi. To it one of nice maidens, Lucia attracted, young people in increasing frequency began to look towards each other. The man of science tactfully pushed the perspective student in embraces of the daughter. And its fatherlike: “ Study, the sonny, and you will replace me at department " in due time; at all forced the young man to become thoughtful.
However, such pushing were excessive. Young people so strong fell in love with each other that they soon declared to parents the engagement. It in life happens infrequently: having married in early youth, the scientist carried by this great feeling to the beloved to the latest sigh. The wife was for it a muse and differed not only beauty, but also rare scrupulousness and respectability. It is possible to tell that for the sake of it to surprise the spouse, Galvani did not spare either himself, or the assistants, practically without poking out a nose from laboratory.
In 25 years Galvani defended the dissertation. In quality “ guinea pig “ it took … not frogs, and the Lucia who for some time appeared in the family way before. He spent a lot of time with the pregnant wife, trying to understand how there is a process of formation of bones of the person. Its scientific work and was called “ Nature of processes of formation of bones of the person “. What is only costed by one of Luigi`s guesses that teeth at the pregnant woman collapse from - for the fact that it gives some substance on construction of bones of a fruit? What substance is, Luigi could only guess: calcium was for the first time received by Davy in 1808 by means of electrolysis. That is later more than half a century.
After defense of a thesis the father-in-law with a light heart accepted the son-in-law on the department, now nobody will dare to tell that it “ nepotism “. Under its management Louis decides to change several the direction of the researches, having been fond “ live magnetism “. But death of the father-in-law in 1775 and “ fight “ for department (not all colleagues wanted to see it on this post), led to the fact that for some time it put aside studying of a problem of live electricity.
Time heals any wounds. Sharpness from loss of professor Galeazzi began to become dull. In these unlucky days of Louis tried more often “ to pull out “ the spouse on walk, counting that the nature will help the wife to get rid of experiences. In some time he suddenly became the witness of the frog opera of improbable beauty. Also there was it when over the head clouds were condensed, the thunder somewhere rumbled, in air clearly smelled of a thunder-storm.
This combination “ thunder-storm + frog “ also set Luigi thinking. He tried to make the first experiments with dead frogs during a thunder-storm. But once, vainly waiting for this natural phenomenon, it incidentally pressed the electrodes thrust in a spinal cord of a frog to an iron lattice on which it lay. There were same reductions, as well as during the experiments made during a thunder-storm.
By the way, at this time in laboratory Lucia who exclaimed incidentally glanced: “ Lui, your pads twitch! “ All city knew Of it, and cheerful bolonets joked about it: “ Honour of discovery of live electricity belongs to senhora Galvani, but not her husband “. Soon the scientist without the aid of the spouse found out that muscles are reduced also for lack of an external source of current, at simple imposing by them two different metals connected by the conductor.
As you think, what is the time Galvani “ tormented “ frogs? Now it seems improbable, but it began the experiences in 1780, and summed up adjusted totals in 1791 - m. Nearly 11 years of long experiences - such is the price to opening!
And here about what I want to tell finally, literally briefly. About that feat which was made by the scientist out of occupation by science. In 1797 when Napoleon conquered Northern Italy where also Bologna entered, refused as professor of university to take oath of allegiance to Bonaparte, and it was discharged of department which directed for many years. By then Galvani`s family lived practically in poverty and how many it was necessary to have courage to lose the last source to existence. But the honor of the homeland for Luigi was done more expensively!
These shocks, and also impossibility to eat fully, sent Galvani to the grave soon. He died on December 4, 1798. And its experiences remained in any textbook on physics. And today each school student knows about his opening …