What was considered especially important in education of children by N. G. Chernyshevsky?
the Famous Russian writer and the publicist Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky exhausted with seven years` penal servitude and the long reference in sixty one years died of a cerebral hemorrhage after return to native Saratov.
He was an exemplary family man and, suffering from involuntary separation with beloved children, tried councils in letters and the literary works to influence their education and education.
He considered that at teenage age it is very important to children to be engaged in self-education, paying special attention to philosophy, the World history and the past of the country. He advised sons to study Feuerbach`s compositions, the works “ the great thinkers loving truth: Laplace, Lamarck, Spinoza “. In letters to children Chernyshevsky shared with them the knowledge and tried to develop at them independent thinking.
Nikolay Gavrilovich Chernyshevsky was born in 1828 in the city of Saratov in the priest`s family, studied three years in a theological seminary where the father taught it, and then - at the St. Petersburg university. He with interest monitored revolutions of 1848 in Europe and noted: “ … I am more and more involved in policy and more and more firmly I become in ultrasotsialistsky views “. In twenty two years he graduated from the university, married in Saratov the daughter of the doctor Olga Sokratovna Vasilyeva, three years later returned to St. Petersburg, wrote the thesis “ Aesthetic attitudes of art towards reality “ and the " magazine published more than eight years; Contemporary “.
The destiny to Chernyshevsky was extremely severe: he was arrested in July, 1862 and placed in the Alekseevsky ravelin of the Peter and Paul Fortress after in St. Petersburg closed the " edition; Contemporary “ from - for strange rumors about arsons “ nihilists “ and A. I. Herzen`s proposals to issue the magazine abroad. And though during the investigation any communications of edition “ Contemporary “ with emigres it was not established, Chernyshevsky was accused on the basis of false testimonies of authorship of the leaflet “ To Lordly peasants from their well-wishers bow “ also condemned for seven years of penal servitude with a Siberian exile until the end of life.
And crushed a monarchy absolutism family life of one of the most educated and talented people of Russia of that time, having arranged over the author of the novel “ What to do “ written during the investigation, “ civil execution “. It was exposed on the square with a board at breasts with the ominous inscription “ State criminal “ broke a sword over the head and several hours kept chained to a column. When in thirty six years the writer went to penal servitude, his eldest son Alexander was ten years old, to younger Mikhail - six, children lost the house, being brought up from now on at relatives and friends of parents. The encouraging letters of the father supported spirit of the torn to pieces family suffering of material need and police surveillance.
When sons entered teenage age, Chernyshevsky devoted them to education at distance a lot of attention, trying to exert impact on formation of interests of children in the letters, attracting thoughts to philosophy and history. In his letters there are no instructive notations, but some councils repeat. Most often it is thoughts of self-education by means of which it is possible to reach in life of much: “ The School doctrine is very not enough for the young men wishing to be educated people “.
His sons asked to give sometimes in letters an assessment to separate historical events, and Nikolay Gavrilovich, describing crusades and other wars, reminded them, “ … that truth only then truth, when it for people “ and “ Kriterium of historic facts of all centuries and the people - honor and conscience “ “ The Science contradicting humanity is dangerous to the person. Mind of the scientist - category moral “.
Chernyshevsky considered that the foundation of morality is laid in a family, and hurried to remind of it in letters to the sons: “ Family love … - the most salutary of all good feelings of the person … Smartness of the speech, smartness of character do not conduct to anything useful to people if not the feeling of love to people " happens motive of words and acts;. “ Source of all good for people, and including noble feelings, - the kind attitudes of the person towards his relatives, these ordinary attitudes towards people with which there lives a person in one apartment... Loving somebody honest feeling, we it is more, than would be without that, we love also all people “.
The authority of the clever and highly educated father was so great in consciousness of the sons who inherited from it aspiration to knowledge and decency that Alexander showing interest in mathematics sent it tasks from area of the theory of numbers. He was a capable mathematician, but the heavy nervous breakdown developed the serious illness which tore off it life also early as well as fatherly, - in sixty one years. His brother Mikhail lived longer, wrote verses, became the founder of the museum of the father in Saratov and the first publisher of Complete works of Nikolay Gavrilovich.
Many wise sayings of Chernyshevsky became aphorisms over time: “ Bad means suit only for the bad purpose, and for good are good only good “ “ All kind is useful, all bad is harmful “ “ Strength of the person - reason, neglect to them leads to powerlessness “ …