How to keep vitamins B products?
In recipe-books the main attention are paid to flavoring advantages of food, and it is necessary to consider the maximum preservation in a product of feedstuffs which are necessary for our organism, and hygienic requirements. The main task of the hostess - to keep vitamins at culinary processing therefore, choosing a type of culinary processing, it is necessary to prefer, those which do not demand long heating. Health requires absolutely simple food. It is necessary pomint that big losses of biologically active agents in products happen in the course of culinary processing. Therefore it is important to know how it is correct to cook food, to keep its healthy and tasty. The wrong, inept processing can lead to losses (up to 10 - 15%) the main food ingredients.
There are rules of processing of products which have to be observed strictly.
- do not allow long storage of the defrozen meat and fish (it is desirable to subject them to immediate heat treatment).
- do not freeze products again if they were already defrozen.
- Meat for preparation at us, as a rule, in a frozen look though it is more preferable to refuse the frozen meat.
- At a defrosting of meat should be remembered: the more slowly there is a thawing process, the meat juice and nutrients is lost less. For this purpose meat is spread on special ware and thawed at the room temperature.
- should not irrigate it with warm water or to immerse in water (at such thawing there are considerable losses of meat juice and intensive reproduction of microorganisms).
- After thawing wash meat flowing water and immediately are engaged in further processing.
Any way of processing makes changes to a chemical composition of food.
- Thermal treatment of products has to be minimum because it breaks structure of fabrics of a product, biochemical communications, reduces the content of enzymes, mineral substances, vitamins therefore the food is not able to execute the functions completely any more.
- For example, strong heating of fats reduces their nutrition and biological value, and to crown it all they gain also the cancerogenic properties having the effect on all human body.
- Thermal treatment has double value: under the influence of high temperature microbes perish, food develop the best taste, are easier crushed, is digested and acquired by an organism.
- From the point of view of a balanced diet frying - the most imperfect and unhealthy way of culinary processing.
- Most “ sparing “ concerning vitamins steam boiling, roasting is. “ Sparing “ cooking methods “ spare “ not only vitamins, but also stomach.
- needs to Cook products in the minimum quantity of water, sufficient only to cover products. It is more preferable to make cooking of vegetables not in water, and on couple.
- When cooking passes part of vitamins and mineral salts into broth therefore it is irrational to pour out water in which vegetables, bean cooked.
- Unlike other vegetables bean (peas, haricot) before preparation should be presoaked previously in cold water at several o`clock - in this case time of cooking is considerably reduced. It is necessary to cook them in the same water in which they were killed.
It is necessary to remember that excess cooking adversely affects and on vitamins of grain which before preparation carefully touch, wash out and only then use.
Potatoes, carrots, beet need to be peeled at first of the stuck earth, and then to clear of a peel. So, when cleaning potatoes (it is necessary to clean cutting off the thinnest layer) from 16 to 22% of vitamin C when cook mashed potatoes, vitamins are lost even more are lost.
It is the best of all to steam potatoes or zapekatv to an oven and, of course, with a peel (under it there is very thin layer of the substances, enzymes and vitamins helping to acquire starch). When cleaning this layer is by all means cut off, and on starch digestion the organism is forced to take these substances from the reserve, and they are necessary to it for another matters. Vitamin C in potatoes and other vegetables almost completely remains at their immersion in hot water, in cold water there are enzymes causing oxidation of vitamin C and other substances and therefore to fill in vegetables with cold water - a mistake.
In order to avoid destructive contact of vegetables with metals it is better to use densely closed enameled ware and to use them at once after preparation. For preservation of vitamins when cooking it is desirable to stir with a wooden spoon. It is impossible to allow rough and, the main thing, excessively long boiling, it is impossible to digest vegetables.
Influence of sunshine increases vitamin C losses, it quickly collapses and in the peeled vegetables. The pickles and pickling also destroys this vitamin. And in a human body ascorbic acid is not formed, and there are no its accumulation.
Cabbage - too a good source of ascorbic acid, not only in fresh, but also in a fermented look. But all its value is lost if to cook it or to extinguish.
What you would not prepare, the modest breakfast or a festive lunch, vegetables by all means have to be on a table (they exert a great influence on process of digestion and assimilation of food).
Buying milk, you remember that before its use it needs to be filtered, and then to boil. Of course, boiling reduces a nutrition value of a product a little, but ensures safety of the use.
Do not prepare for the future. If you want that your family fully ate, you should refuse this habit. If you prepare for the future, remember that it is not enough advantage of such food, at repeated warming up of useful substances for an organism does not remain any more, and you simply fill a stomach. Ideally the food has to be freshly cooked, various as during the day, and within a week, and in a daily diet there has to be enough all vitamins (vitamins are necessary for the normal course of all biochemical reactions in an organism, digestion of feedstuffs, growth and restoration of fabrics).
Special care is necessary if it is necessary to cut greens, vegetables which will not be exposed to thermal treatment. It is necessary to cook salads just before the use (the peeled and cut vegetables are weather-beaten, lose the vitamins under the influence of light and air).
Do not leave a frying pan from the fat remains for a reuse, in superheated fats the substances which are negatively influencing health of the person are formed.
Eggs before preparation have to be washed surely out.
Degree of health of the person, and also taste of food substantially depends on the used water. It is impossible to use for cooking and drink water from the crane with hot water. Remember that boiled water long is not stored as in it harmful substances are formed.
When cooking it is necessary to know and carry out a number of rules which will protect you from burns, bruises, cuts and other injuries, sometimes insignificant, but sometimes having serious consequences.
If you injured hand skin, the wound should be disinfected at once.
At cold, quinsy, flu if you have to cook food, it is necessary to put on a gauze bandage the person.
Before to open a canning, glass, plastic jar, it is necessary to examine it (whether there are no defects), and then to wash up, wipe and only then to put on a table. Before the use of home-made canned food they should be boiled within 10 minutes.
To provide an organism with all necessary feedstuffs in a diet products from six groups have to enter:
- milk, cheeses, the
fermented milk products - meat, a bird, fish,
eggs - bakery products, grain, macaroni, sugar and confectionery
vegetables - fruit.
The food has to contain all substances which are a part of a human body and are spent in the course of its activity, namely: proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water, mineral substances, vitamins.
In order that the food was balanced concerning its main power components, the ratio between proteins, fats and carbohydrates on caloric content has to make approximately 1:1:4.
At insufficient amount of proteins blood formation decreases, development of the growing organism is late, activity of nervous system, a liver and other bodies is broken, recovering of cages from a serious illness is slowed down, excess of proteins in a diet can do harm to an organism.
Fats also are a part of cages and tissues of the person. They are a power source and serve as construction material for an organism. They improve taste of food and increase feeling of saturation. The need for fats is defined by age of the person, his constitution, character of work, a state of health, climatic conditions.
The carbohydrates arriving with food (starch, sugar) are the main source of energy of the person. There is a lot of starch in bread, bakery products, grain, potatoes.
Other type of carbohydrates - sugar, at refinement all salts, vitamins and other substances delete from it.
Carbohydrates are widely used in food of the person. Food of various groups of the population, as a rule, has the expressed carbohydrate orientation that promotes emergence of excess weight, and their contents in a diet has to be balanced with proteins and fats. Sharp restriction of carbohydrates and, especially, their exception breaks normal food and leads to essential disorders of activity of an organism.
With food the organism has to receive also minerals which are vital components of food. They provide the normal course of important physiological processes, support kislotno - alkaline balance, normalize vodno - a salt exchange.
Now in food of the modern person the expressed deficiency of many minerals takes place that leads to various diseases. Is the reason for that: monotonous food, losses of minerals at cultivation (violation of technology), the wrong storage, industrial processing. So, if the person does not receive with food of necessary amount of iron, he gets sick with anemia.
If iodine does not come to an organism, the bazedova an illness develops. Deficiency of calcium in a human body is compensated for the account of its stocks in bones. Calcium contains: in dairy products, cheese, an egg yolk, plums, a gooseberry, cabbage, beet, onions, spinach.
Phosphorus together with calcium is a part of bone, muscular and nervous fabrics, participates in breath, motive reactions and a power exchange.
Magnesium participates in a carbohydrate and phosphoric exchange, stimulates work of intestines, raises a zhelcheotdeleniye, possesses vasodilating properties.
Iron participates in reactions of oxidation and restoration, in formation of hemoglobin.
Manganese - the important component of many enzymes, participates in formation of bones and muscular tissue, blood formation, promotes an exchange of fats.
Iodine is a part of hormones of a thyroid gland, strengthens oxidizing processes, increases oxygen consumption.
So, we sum up the result.
Calcium and phosphorus are the main components of bone system. Phosphorus is a part of nervous and other tissues, it well affects nervous system, especially at hard mental work.
Calcium and magnesium are of great importance for the correct work of a cardiac muscle and in general all muscular system.
Iron is a part of dye of blood (hemoglobin) and promotes transfer of oxygen from lungs to fabrics, and copper is of great importance for blood formation processes.
Also table salt (chloride sodium) is of great importance for an organism.
It is not necessary to be fond excessively, to neglect any products - is everything is necessary, but moderately.
Any unilaterality in food, say, gradually leads abuse of dairy, meat, flour, krupyany products to the detriment of complexity to development of the insufficiency of this or that element which is shown in diseases or functional frustration.