How to learn to invent or What is TRIZ?
mankind are familiar No more than two hundred years with such inventions as the steamship and the railroad. Slightly more than hundred years ago radio was invented. And only in the last 40 - 50 years rapid growth of number of various inventions began. It both artificial satellites of Earth, and computers, and atomic energy, videorecorders and CD - players. All list of the inventions and opening which created shape of life of the modern person would occupy tens of pages!
There is an opinion that now it is difficult to invent something … It is right only partly. Just potential inventions became more knowledge-intensive, almost inaccessible to the ordinary person now even if and with the higher education.
However if not to raise at global inventions, and to be content small, then and the invention can find the place in everyday life, let and small. For example, unless the special hinged mechanism of a suspension bracket of eurowindows allowing to open a window not only rather vertical axis (as a usual window), but also rather horizontal axis when the window leans back a little down, giving to air free access in the room is not the invention and protecting the room from a rain and penetration of strangers? Unless not the invention, for example, adjustable spanner?
Looking at many engineering decisions around itself, you think: “ Unless I could not think up it? “. But when business reaches real tasks, our brain begins to work according to the standard scheme of search of decisions by analogy with already existing decisions or a trial and error method.
For certain you heard a name of the world famous inventor Thomas Alva Edison. It is impossible to deny its huge contribution to a world moneybox of inventions! Among its achievements: improvement of phone, invention of a phonograph, glow lamp, invention of the electric boss, counter and switch, electrification of the railroad both many other inventions and improvements. In total more than one thousand inventions!
An example of its work - the invention of the glow lamp. Having taken as a basis Lodygin`s lamp (coal cores in vacuum), Edison in 1878 started the solution of this task. It touched more than 6000 materials for production of a thread of a lamp. Its purpose consisted in finding the most durable material in addition such which would not demand creation of vacuum in a lamp flask. Yes, he found the solution, but on it several years of work on search of many thousands of various materials were required. It was the pure trial and error method which at patience and assiduity yielded good results. The main invention of Edison, however, is the invention scientifically - research institutes. At the invention of the alkaline accumulator Edison guessed 50000 tests to divide into 1000 employees, each of which had to touch only 50 options.
But what to do if near at hand you do not have this one thousand employees? There are only one person and one task. Let`s follow an example from life. All of us use irons, at someone the iron modern - with a good temperature regulator and about the ferry, and at someone the ordinary Soviet iron. Whatever was your iron, you can have such situation: You left for work, and half an hour later you the vague doubts developing into panic begin to torment - whether the iron is switched off? It is good if children stayed at home, they can call and ask to switch off the iron. And if there is no house anybody? How to relieve itself of alarm concerning not switched off iron? Let`s try to review on this example an example of use of the remarkable invention of Heinrich Saulovich Altshuller - the Theory of the Solution of Inventive Tasks (TSIT). Having generalized results of the scrupulous analysis of thousands of inventions from patent fund, G. Altshuller drew a tremendous conclusion that all existing inventions can be consolidated to use of a number of the general receptions and methods. Having studied these methods, the owner of engineering education able to use library and the Internet gets good chance to become the inventor and even to earn on it money.
Inherently, TRIZ represents a set of algorithms and big (but limited) the list of various inventive receptions.
Generally the solution of a task breaks up to four stages.
1. Diagnostics. Research of a task and definition of shortcomings which should be eliminated.
2. Reduction. Drawing up model of a contradiction, conflict.
3. Transformation. Choice of a method of the solution of a task and its direct decision.
4. Verification. Verification of the solution of a task on correctness and an optimality.
In a case with the iron:
1. needs to reduce risk of emergence of the fire from the iron.
2. we Find a contradiction. The iron has to be switched on that it could use to destination, and the iron has to be switched off to avoid fire emergence.
3. needs to resolve the contradiction received on the third step. For this purpose it is possible to divide requirements in time. That is, the iron is switched on when it iron. And the iron is switched off when it do not iron. And let all this scheme looks a little ridiculously and is banal. Just so ordinary example. At the solution of more complex challenges by means of TRIZ will be not to laughter any more. I as the engineer can suggest to build in the scheme of the iron of a timer which in 10 minutes after turning on of the iron violently switches off it, and the elementary sensor which starts a timer at any shake-up of the iron again. Here we used the " method; introductions of feedback “.
4. Thus, we received the decision rather difficult in the technical plan, however allowing to cope with an objective. This decision assumes change of a design of the iron at manufacturer and is an expensive solution.
Somewhere read a semi-comical situation how one good psychologist relieved the woman of constant alarm for not switched off iron. It recommended to it to take the iron with itself(himself) when she goes to work! Then, once the alarm appears in soul, it is possible to glance in a bag and to see the switched-off iron. Ingeniously!
In general, it is very difficult to explain briefly what is TRIZ. If you became interested in this question, just type the word " in any search engine; TRIZ “ also enjoy! Progress to you in the solution of daily inventive tasks.