What rescued G. K. Zhukov from repetition of tragic destiny of the marshal M. N. Tukhachevsky?
G. K. Zhukov was born in very poor country family in the village of Strelkovka of the Kaluga province in 1896 - for three years after M. N. Tukhachevsky. His father, the foundling Kostya taken from a shelter on education by the childless widow Anna Zhukova after death of the foster mother at eight-year age went in pupils to the shoemaker. Konstantin Zhukov gave the son in twelve years too to study furriery to the wife`s brother Mikhail. In seventeen years future marshal became a master - the furrier, enjoyed confidence at the owner convinced of his honesty and did not think about any military career.
Georgy (Egoriya) Zhukov was called in a cavalry in the summer of 1915, in the middle of World War I, and after preparation sent to study on an unter - the officer. It was courageous, ambitious, did not give itself to humiliate to the platoon commander and nearly got to a disciplinary battalion. The obstinate soldier was let out from educational team in a rank vice-an unter - the officer and sent to the front. In the fall of 1916 it returned after a contusion to the squadron an unter - the officer with two St George`s Crosses. After revolution Georgy Zhukov came in August, 1918 the volunteer to a cavalry regiment of Red Army.
Mikhail Tukhachevsky joined the ranks of Red Army in 1918 too. He was born in a manor Aleksandrovsk of the Dorogobuzhsky County of the Smolensk province in 1893 as the illegitimate son of the hereditary nobleman Nikolay Nikolaevich Tukhachevsky and the peasant Mavra of Petrovna of Milokhova. In 1914 it ended a graduation class of the Moscow military school, and then the Aleksandrovsky military college after a gymnasium. In World War I Tukhachevsky participated in a rank of the second lieutenant of the Semyonovsky regiment and by the time of the capture was awarded by five awards.
In 1917. Tukhachevsky escaped from prisoner-of-war camp (the fifth escape), and after return to Russia was made in captains of the Semenovsky regiment, and then demobilized. In 1918 future marshal according to the recommendation B. B. of Kuibyshev entered RCP(b), and in Civil war successfully ordered armies on East and Southern fronts, the Caucasian front. In 1921 he participated in suppression of mutiny in Kronstadt, and then ordered troops at defeat krestyansko - eserovsky revolt under the leadership of Antonov in the Tambov and Voronezh provinces.
On Tambov region for the first time future marshals M. N. Tukhachevsky and G. K. Zhukov also met. Georgy Konstantinovich ordered then a squadron, and in the Tambov province it appeared, pursuing from - under Voronezh the remains of the crushed gang trying to connect with “ " army; Antonova. At M. N. Tukhachevsky`s appointment the top military commander on fight with “ " armies; Antonova Lenin set the task “ as soon as possible to liquidate kulak mutinies and their armed gangs “ authorizing the most drastic measures.
In the manuscript of memoirs Georgy Zhukov later will note many years: “ … among antonovets there were many veterans and among them an unter - officers. And one such nearly did me in “. In fights on Tambov region Georgy Zhukov showed bravery, by miracle survived and was awarded the order the Red banner. In several years he together with Tukhachevsky will discuss “ theoretical bases of tactical art of the Soviet troops “ in Narkomat defenses.
Last time G. K. Zhukov will meet Tukhachevsky on an asset of the party in 1931 and later will write in the memoirs: “ In M. N. Tukhachevsky the giant of military thought, a star of the first magnitude in a group of outstanding military leaders of Red Army " was felt;. In the night of June 12, 1937 the giant of military thought was shot on a charge of “ Voyenno - fascist Trotskyist plot “.
“ By the beginning of war the Red Army and Voyenno - Navy came with almost exterminated main frame of army... In general during Stalin repressions it was exterminated the highest and senior command structure more, than we lost it in all four years of war “ - the Russian writer Vladimir Vasilyevich Karpov stated, reflecting on M. N. Tukhachevsky and G. K. Zhukov`s destinies.
To it, Vladimir Vasilyevich Karpov, our generation has to be grateful for searches of truth in “ Memoirs and reflections “ the marshal G. K. Zhukov, for the publication of excerpts from the manuscript of the legendary commander. Others “ researchers “ the published three-volume edition of the marshal were obsessed with passion to convict the author of inaccuracies, comparing different figures, approving repressions among military, and they were not interested in an acceptable distortion of his thoughts, illumination of historic facts from positions partiyno - nomenclature expediency.
Purposeful searches of the manuscript of G. K. Zhukov yielded positive result, and readers can realize as the glorified military leader was close to repetition of tragic destiny of the marshal M. N. Tukhachevsky what unique were his self-control and courage which did not give an abyss not only to the most People`s Commissariat for Internal Affairs in cellars, but also bravely rescuing in this terrible time of the friends who fell under suspicion.
Readers of the first edition of the book of G. K Zhukov “ Memoirs and reflections “ surprised that Georgy Konstantinovich, noting Tukhachevsky, Uborevich, Serdich`s high commander qualities, other military leaders, did not write how they were shot. This strangeness was cleared by the found manuscript of the marshal: its all fields were covered with remarks of the leading companions concerning repressions, on publicizing of military operations and estimates.
There are in the manuscript and G. K. Zhukov`s memories of how he could fall a victim of lawlessness and repeat tragic destiny of the marshal Tukhachevsky:
“ 1937 in the history of the Soviet people and the Soviet Armed Forces holds a specific place... In the country the terrible situation was created. Nobody trusted anybody. “... Somehow the commissioner of the case Fomin told
to Georgy Zhukov that it the big asset of communists 4 - y is going to sort divisions, 3 - go a kavkorpusa and 6 - go a kavkorpusa.
Future marshal had most to beat off far-fetched charges of good relations with the repressed military leaders, complaints, “ that he unfairly punished many commanders and political workers, roughly abused, did not nominate them to the highest positions... “. The chief of a political department 4 - y S. P. Tikhomirov criticized kavdiviziya Zhukova for underestimation of political workers, and all business went calling it “ enemy of the people “. Georgy Konstantinovich protected himself: he agreed that it should have been vyderzhanny in the address with subordinated, to help more the kind word and to show nervousness less, but charges of friendship with “ enemies of the people “ swept aside, having declared that all have to fight for good relations with the administration and scarified the chief of a political department for unscrupulousness.
His unexpectedly courageous speech made due action: the Communist Party meeting did not support those who wanted to destroy the commander, and was limited “ discussion of the question “. Georgy Konstantinovich understood that “ if the Communist Party organization followed Tikhomirov`s advice and others “ it “ the destiny would be decided in Beria`s residences … “ and it would go in “ Tukhachevsky`s staff “ as then military gloomy joked. Courage, adherence to principles and self-control rescued Georgy Konstantinovich from repetition of tragic destiny of the marshal M. N. Tukhachevsky.
Desperate bravery of future marshal whose only voice rescued the colleagues who fell under suspicion for good relations with " surprises seventy years later; enemies of the people “ though he risked at the same time own life. He saw man`s tears of gratitude when stopped the slander which was creeping away those days over the country at reckless speed from - for fear to be suspects of disloyalty.
Be happy, dear friends, do not betray, do not sell and do not forget that courage takes the cities.