Whether there is today a real threat to ache with cholera?
Now, according to World Health Organization, cholera are registered practically on all continents of the world. Continuous and real threat of delivery of cholera on the territory of Russia exists.
Cholera is the most ancient intestinal infection which is periodically extending to many countries of the world and in the past claiming millions of the human lives.
The historical and operating till today centers of cholera are districts of basins of the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers in India, some regions of Pakistan and Hugo`s country - East Asia where the combination of climatic, geographical and social factors defined formation and rooting of this infection.
Since 1816 seven devastating cholera pandemics are in the history described. All pandemics began in India and occupied a set of the countries. And only during the fifth pandemic (1883 - 1896) the German microbiologist Koch opened the causative agent of cholera - a classical cholera vibrio. Procession of the seventh pandemic began since 1861. During this period the classical cholera vibrio was forced out by a vibrio Ale - Torahs.
In 2006 in the world 151318 cases of cholera were registered, 4575 people
died Cholera belongs to group of sharp intestinal diseases which affects only the person. The causative agent of cholera - a vibrio. Out of a human body cholera vibrioes are unstable.
A source of an infection is the sick person or a vibriononositel who allocates the activator with excrements, polluting external environment. Entrance gate of an infection is zheludochno - an intestinal path where the activator gets with the infected water or food. It is possible kontaktno - a household way of transfer of a vibrio through the infected household goods. In various foodstuff the cholera vibrio can remain from 9 to 30 days, and in reservoirs about eleven months.
The incubatory period at cholera, from the moment of infection of the patient before emergence of clinical symptoms of a disease, lasts from several hours to 5 days (more often 1 - 2 day). The disease can proceed both in easy, and in a severe, life-threatening form.
The illness begins sharply with emergence of a liquid chair, vomiting, an indisposition, weakness, an easy fever, sometimes dizziness and slight increase of body temperature to subfebrilny figures. Patients complain of feeling of dryness in a mouth and I am eager (but the drunk liquid only strengthens vomiting). The patient`s excrements during the first hours can have kalovy character, but quickly become colourless, watery and remind rice broth on appearance.
Characteristic of cholera is loss by a liquid organism with a diarrhea and vomiting. During the short period (from one and a half to two days) the patient loses up to 30 - 40 liters of liquid that leads to sharp shifts vodno - salt balance. And the fast expressed dehydration of an organism is life-threatening. There is organism dehydration which without urgent specific treatment can lead to death.
At emergence of symptoms of an illness it is necessary to call the doctor, and before his arrival none of the people who are in the apartment of the diseased should not leave it. The patient is hospitalized, and all who communicated with him pass inspection (if necessary are subject to preventive hospitalization).
The most effective measure of protection of and relatives from cholera is strict observance of measures of personal prevention and hygiene. It is necessary:
- often and carefully to wash hands with soap before cooking, before food, after a toilet;
- to protect foodstuff from pollution, to observe terms and temperature of their storage;
- vegetables and fruit to use after careful washing by flowing, and then boiled water;
- to use for drink water only of the guaranteed quality, it is desirable cleared by means of filters, or boiled;
- to refuse purchase of products from the trays located on the street;
- when bathing in open reservoirs not to swallow water;
- not to self-medicate and at the first symptoms of a disease to see a doctor, remembering that the earlier treatment is begun, the risk for health of the patient and the people surrounding it is less.