Rus Articles Journal

how computer technologies developed?

the 21st century, a century of modern technologies, human life it is already inconceivable without various electronics, and first of all computers. They practically everywhere - from mobile missile systems to cash terminals in rural shops. They do practically everything. However one and a half centuries ago word " Computer; it was not even thought up.

Though in 1822 was created the device called the analytical car, it miracle of engineering thought also consider as the first computer. Slightly more than a century later, in 1937 Atanasoff develops the first COMPUTER - electronically - the computer. In the years of war the first computer for interpretation of the intercepted radiogramms is created.

B 1946 is created the ENIAC COMPUTER known for the whole world - it just struck with the sizes and power - occupying 167 square meters of the area, it contained 18 thousand electron tubes, the consuming 180 kV/h. However abilities of this unit are comparable unless modern calculators. ENIAC worked with ten-digit figures, and carried out 300 operations per second. It had no keyboard therefore data were entered into memory by means of punched cards.

Progress did not stand still. And in 5 years on a stream production of transistors was put, and in a year the first transistor computer was assembled. A year later develop the special device for storage of information - the magnetic carrier, a diskette. In 1958 the first chip, and in 1960 - the first modem is created.

A in 1968 occurs foundation of the INTEL company, two years later they let out a chip of memory with a capacity of 1 to/bit. A year later - 4 - the hrazryadny microprocessor, still a year later - 8 - mi the digit microprocessor 8008.

B is created 1974 the manipulator which is nowadays called mouse

in 1980 was written the first virus - a worm. If before viruses were written only for entertainment, then this worm was created with the purpose to do much harm. the INTEL company releases

B 1984 the first personal computer - IBM on the basis of the Intel286

processor Further, practically each two years of Intel released processors with increase in number of transistors twice. And in 1995 PentiumPro was created, the first processor which has a cache - memory 2 - go level it was located directly on a crystal that considerably increased reliability of operation of processors.

until the end of 90 - x in the market of processors at Intel was not competitors, but the appeared AMD company could overtake Intel because released the processors which are not conceding on productivity, at the same time much cheaper. That Intel will not be ruined releases the cut-down PentiumIII version - Celeron, as opposed to AMD lets out Duron.

B presents to 2000 of Intel 1 - y 64 - hrazryadny the Itanium processor - the processor ground under work in servers. As opposed to AMD develops Athlon MP.

Intel lets out a Year later Pentium IV, the processor supporting the Hyper Threading technology thanks to it the computer with such processor turns into the virtual dual-processor computer.

- AMD lets out 2003 the 64 - x the digit processor which unlike analog of competitors, works with ease as well with 32 - x digit programs.

Studying history of development of computers, and in particular - processors, the scientist Moore removed the regularity called later by Moore`s law. He noticed that the capacity of each new chip of memory doubles in comparison with the predecessor, and the chip appears each two years. This law is fair as well for determination of growth of speed of processors and volume of HDD. But this process has a development limit and therefore will stop.