May 5 - Day of the encoder. Whether it is used taynopis in literature?
Cryptography (from crypto … and a grafiya ) taynopis, system of change of the letter with the purpose to make the text unclear for uninitiated persons.
Today it is standard to believe that the scope of cryptography, codes and codes is limited to the military and diplomatic sphere, computer technologies and banking. Meanwhile, several centuries ago cryptograms played an important role in literature and philosophy.
Literature 15, 16 and 17 - go is penetrated centuries by codes: medieval writers were trained in this skill on works of antique authors and published books with the messages ciphered in them from which the few were revealed. At that time confidential taynopis was general hobby of the European yards. In each of them there was own code, and the educated public communicated among themselves with the help of sophisticated cryptograms.
In the 12th century also the Russian copyists using both replacement of one letters with others, and mathematics addressed to taynopis. The tsar Quietest Alexey Mikhaylovich himself made secret, “ zateyny “ systems of the letter that, by the way, was considered at all times as very esteemed occupation for philosophers and mathematicians.
It was since ancient times accepted to cipher the works or part them among members of the confidential political and religious organizations. Besides, the cryptography could be an intellectual entertainment, and in due time the tribute to this hobby was paid by Rabelais, Shakespeare, Dante, Edgar Poe considering himself as the great cryptanalyst.
Sometimes the addressing codes was dictated by care of recognition of a priority for the author of a discovery about which through service was for any reasons undesirable or premature. In particular, numerous use of an anagram (the shift in the word of letters forming other word) was explained by the last circumstance. Galilei.
Some great scientists and philosophers did not dare to publish the works from - for religious intolerance of an environment. To keep fruits of the intellectual works for mankind, these people hid the opening in the ciphered texts, believing that future generations, more tolerant, than their contemporaries, will open codes and will estimate achievements of the ancestors who outstripped the time.
In imperial Russia, in the conditions of cruel censorship, the journalist managed to drag on pages of the newspaper sedition concerning death of one of satraps, using under the gathered material the innocent picture with the image of a sepulchral fencing: through florid rods of a lattice looked through an inscription in German: “ That`s where the hen scratches “.
Writers of the Soviet Union were put in such conditions too that could not state openly the thoughts if those did not coincide with the general line of party and government in literature. Except well-known reception - hints (hints) - writers used reception of the hidden recurrence of the works. So, for example, Evgeny Schwartz`s creativity can be rather understood only by those who know that some of his plays make the hidden cycle.
There were also comical situations: one cheerful poet of times of the first years of the Soviet power argued with the companion that will manage to publish obscenities on pages of the central newspaper. Also won! He used an acrostic - the first letters of each line of the poem made obscene language. The publisher was nearly dismissed, but that managed to justify himself, having declared that he reads texts as all normal people, across, but not down.
The sixtieth years of the left century were marked by the next surge in interest in literary game with the word. Its sophisticated examples were presented then by the French group of Ulipo (A workshop of potential literature). In our fatherland the playwright Edward Radzinsky in one of the plays managed to insert the full cryptogram, having used one of the thinnest methods of enciphering with double complication: the text of the play hid not only the secret message to the reader - hidden was also the code perceived as ordinary dialogue of characters.
With Day of the encoder you, friends!