From where is the Russian Land went?
the Question can seem rather hackneyed. It is told also about Kiev so much - mother of the cities of Russians, and about a baptism. But how really that Russia is similar to our present?
Now Russia is the strong state stretching for the most part of Eastern Europe, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. The board centralized, democratic. Many nationalities of various religions live in the territory. Whether there was such Kievan Rus`? What unites us with it?
We will begin with belief, as usual it becomes. The belief really the same is Orthodoxy. But, not absolutely. Orthodoxy was accepted in 988 g in political goals. All state Christian became formal. Today in Russia there are a lot of different unlike faiths. Both Orthodoxy, and Catholicism, and Moslem, and the Buddhism, and is a lot of other religions. So, difference is available. In 10 - m a century the religion supporting the power was formal and uniform. Any tolerance to gentiles. All of them were strangers.
And what was the power? Kiev formally remained the capital city rich and influential. The arrangement at it was rather convenient in trade sense. But remnants of military democracy of Slavs made itself felt constantly. There was a continuous race for power. Each other princes constantly killed. Occupied thrones. At the same time also councils (veche) worked. Novgorod completely separated from Kiev in 1136. There the prince was elected, as our president. But it was no modern democracy, it was the oligarchy. Veche irregularly gathered, procedures any were not. Well, again anything the general.
And territory? Here and there is nothing to speak. Kievan Rus` is a present East Ukraine, the Russian Severo - the West. In 10 - m inhabited a century wild forest land of the central Russia, Moscow, that is. There were certain small settlements on hills. The city of Vladimir was founded in general in 1108 - m to year. All edge was inhabited by the Ugrian separate tribes leading rather primitive life. In the central Russia all of them were completely assimilated and joined future Russian ethnos. It is clear, as the territory, and the people not really coincide.
By the way, in the encyclopedia Britannica Kievan Rus` in general is called the Varangian state. So directly on the card it is also written - Varangians. Of course, Slavs are remembered too. But the state - Varangian.
But the continuity, of course is. I it would call spiritually - religious. This Orthodoxy which became an integral part of spirituality of the Russian people. And roots conduct it to Byzantium. Moscow - the Third Rome, and to the fourth not to happen. Of course, still it is possible to call the love to freedom going from old kind Slavic outlaws.
And when the state appears modern to us? It is necessary to go on stories further. The fact that we have a democracy should not mislead anybody. Today`s Russia inherits Soviet, nobody will argue with it. Same institutes of the power, centralism, appointment of governors. During the Soviet period and selectivity existed formally. And the rigid system of Councils was reaction to liberalization of the end 19 - go centuries, the brought country to crash in 1914 - m to year. Though we can also tell that new Russia was born in 1991 - m to year, but all - we still flesh from flesh of imperial Russia.
Up to 1240 - go years Russia constantly experienced both the internal, and external conflicts. The capital was transferred to Vladimir which is specially constructed for this purpose. Principalities constantly were at enmity among themselves. Constantly interfered from the steppe Khazars, Pechenegs, Cumans. Eventually, Baty destroyed everything that could. In 1240 - the m remained to year from Kiev, according to the detached onlooker, 200 houses. Russia lay in ruins and became part of the huge multinational and multi-religious state.
At the same time Russia kept a considerable autonomy. The religion, the power of princes (were appointed ordynets, as current governors), language, money remained. In the new state the order was established, there was a prosperity (ordynets needed a tribute). There was the state transport with special signals (yamsky chase). But this state so already similar to modern Russia, all - was not Russian as the center was somewhere far, out of the modern territory of the country. It was the stranger who are not gained by the people.
Fight for independence
the Similar state system allowed Russians to collect the strength (and money - Ivan Kalita collected a tribute for ordynets) and under leadership of Russian Orthodox Church to begin fight for association of Russia and national independence. The cities were strengthened, the army is brought together, the national idea is found, value of the government is overestimated. The state changed, something new grew ripe.
The same Ivan Kalita annexes Vladimir to Moscow, both the metropolitanate and the government are transferred to Moscow. Becomes the capital of Moscow in 1328 - m to year. It is already the first real back of our future Russia. But Tatars did not doze. They took away great reigning from Ivan Kalita. Divide and govern.
Real opposition with Tatars - this well-known Kulikovo field (1380). However formally the power of the Horde remained. In two years the khan Tokhtamysh took Moscow. After that Moscow several times found independence, rendered tribute.
But the Horde weakened. Vasily the Second began to invite to service of certain Tatars and in 1453 - the m based to year a vassal Tatar horde for Hugo`s protection - eastern frontiers. In 1480 - the last attempt of the khan Akhmat to subordinate Russia to Tatars was m to year. It failed. Russia found, at last, long-awaited independence. However the territory of the general state sharply decreased. The people and religion became only again.
the New state
At the same time remained the threat coming from separate Volga region khanates. Their gain Ivan the Terrible, and also accession of the Siberian khanate and the Big Nogai horde in 50 - x years of the 16th century, creates the approximate territory of present Russia. After a gain many notable families of the conquered khanates passed to service to the Russian tsar as equal with the Russian families. There was a national integration which was not in the period of board of the Horde. Already also the Ugrian people of the central Russia were considerably assimilated.
However Novgorod annexed to Moscow still by Ivan the Third in 1478 - the m to year, was still restless. Ivan the Terrible pacified him, having crushed seigniorial veche. Boyars were crushed also in Moscow. The so-called Elected Rada was crushed. The oprichnina which turned all old way of Russia was entered. The centralized power was so strengthened and the basis of that territorial unity which exists still is created.
Thus, real outlines of modern Russia begin to be shown in the period of Ivan the Terrible`s government in 16 - m a century. And though after Ivan the Terrible`s government the country addressed, actually, in ruins, the state was created and exists still, despite frequent attempts to destroy it. And the allusion to Kievan Rus` is possible only in spiritually - religious aspect, but not in almost - state.
You love the Homeland such what it is.