What do we know about the prince Dmitry Pozharskom?
are on April 30, 2007 365 years from the date of death of the prince Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky. The monument to Menin and Pozharsky placed before St. Basil`s Cathedral into the Red Square of Moscow became the hallmark of the capital long ago. Quite recently I witnessed how near it numerous Chinese delegations actively posed for the photographers. Though it would seem - to what to Chinese this page in the Russian history?
Present date is unusual also because if to take every year, passed from the date of death of the prince in a day, then as a result it will turn out that just calendar year runs.
… Dmitry Pozharsky was born in a family of the prince Mikhail Pozharsky and the princess Marya Fiodorovna on November 1, 1578 (on another, less checked sources, - on April 29 the same year). The princely sort was impoverished, from princes there was only a title, and descendants of this most ancient family of Starodubsky, according to a legend, turned into the ordinary votchinnik carrying a surname on the ancestral lands “ Fire “.
Carried out a childhood in the Suzdal ancestral lands in an entail property of Mugreevo, being brought up together with elder sister Darya and the younger brother Vasily. After death of the father, and it happened when Dmitry was 15 years old, the family moved to Moscow. Dmitry as the eldest son, arrived on imperial service at court of the tsar Fedor Ioannovich. And already five years later at the very beginning of Boris Godunov`s reign, 20 - the summer prince is appointed a stolnik. It is granted lands near Moscow, but it is more likely advance payment because Pozharsky right there goes to serve to troops, to protect the Russian border from attacks from Lithuania.
Perhaps, this circumstance also rescued Dmitry Mikhaylovich during palace conflicts. But sovereigns appreciated that Pozharsky was not involved in anything, did not belong to any party, and when changing the sovereign willingly swore to new. This complaisance and personal courage led to the fact that the tsar Vasily Shuysky appointed Dmitry Pozharsky the voivode. And as usual, tsar-father “ killed “ zemelk in the native county of the prince - in Suzdal. To appoint him the voivode to Zaraysk situated near Moscow. There was it in the last before the Polish board, to 1610.
Already in Zaraysk Pozharsky learned about deposition of Shuysky who was violently tonsured in monks, and about what conspirators called on a kingdom of the Polish king`s son Vladyslav (the son of the powerful king Sigismund). On a habit Pozharsky swore also to the Pole.
But to Sigismund there was no wish to give such big chunk to someone, let and to the son. It gave the numerous troops to Russia, having besieged first of all Smolensk. Interesting historical foreshortening: Pozharsky did not change the oath and opposed the king - the father to support the son. Here then, from - for Sigismund`s perfidies, all Russian people also rose, and originally the Ryazan nobleman Prokopy Lyapunov who called the people for revolt became the leader of revolt. But what is the nobleman who does not have for himself strong army? He addressed Dmitry Pozharsky as Zaraysk treated the Ryazan lands in those days.
Pozharsky vividly responded to Lyapunov`s proposal and went to Moscow, having headed one of groups of a national militia. He fondly believed that to Muscovites in power to throw off the power of Poles. But as revolt had rather spontaneous character, it was doomed to a failure. In any case, when Poles managed to break almost all centers of resistance, only on Sretenka the prince Pozharsky, zapershis in “ ostrozhets “ fought to the last. In a course of action he was seriously wounded. It managed to take out from Moscow in the Trinity - to Sergiyev monastery.
A bit later, but in the same, 1611 in Nizhnemnovgoroda the new spark of fight for the Fatherland flared up, and even collecting treasury on a liberating campaign was declared.
cannot focus attention On it, but in Mugreevo where Pozharsky was treated, the Nizhny Novgorod delegations came not once. The prince did not hurry to make the decision as understood that the second defeat from Poles will give up as a bad job all his career. And with the archimandrite of the Pechersky monastery Feodosiy, fluctuations helped Pozharsky to overcome only personal arrival of Kuzma Minin. At the same time the prince highlighted that he undertakes only the military management, and for financial side of business it needs the assistant. Kuzma Minin …
in the Fall of the same year became him - that also, having sent messengers to all Russian lands, Minin and Pozharsky went to Nizhny Novgorod. And in February, 1812 the army began to concentrate in Yaroslavl …
meanwhile, summer of 1612. at the Polish garrison which sat down at the Kremlin edibles began to come to an end. Poles directed to the help a reinforcement under command of the hetman Hodkevich and a big wagon train with the food. If both armies connected, it should Pozharsky hardly. He decided to give battle to Hodkevich directly on streets of Moscow.
At dawn on August 22 Poles began to be transported through the Moskva River to the Novodevichy Convent and to accumulate near it. As soon as the hetman army moved on rebels, from walls of the Kremlin burst guns, giving a sign to Hodkevich that the garrison is ready to a sortie.
The besieged garrison undertook a sortie and fell from the back upon Sagittariuses who covered a militia at the Alekseevsky tower and Chertolsky gate. However Sagittariuses did not tremble. Besieged were forced to return under protection of strengthenings.
Hodkevich receded to Poklonnaya Gora and on August 24 decided to make the way to the Kremlin through Zamoskvorechye and moved the regiments to Donskoy Monastery. This time attack of Poles was such powerful that the Russian ratnik trembled. At about noon they were pushed aside to the Crimean ford and in a disorder were transported on other coast. Poles could break through without effort to the Kremlin, and Hodkevich ordered to set to Big Ordynka four hundred hard loaded a supply.
Situation became critical. But the Russian army nevertheless was stronger. Poles in panic receded at first for the Serpukhov gate, and then and from Moscow. Flight of troops of Hodkevich began on August 25. But the garrison which sat down at the Kremlin was given to Pozharsky only two months when Poles, having grown weak for hunger, lost any hope for the help from the outside later.
And right after liberation of Moscow, on October 22, 1612, territorial council decided to elect the new tsar. And it was from the very beginning defined that “ foreign-language non-Christian belief of the Greek law not to elect the Lithuanian and Swedish king and their children and other some states to the Vladimir and Moscow state... “
But it was a hundred times more difficult to choose someone the. Several ancient seigniorial childbirth applied for this honourable position at once. Far not from the first there was a candidate 16 - the summer Mikhail Romanov, the son pining in Polish to captivity of the metropolitan Filaret.
Here and Romanov` dynasty set in on the Russian throne …
A the prince Pozharsky was on imperial service almost till the end of reign of Mikhail. Directed orders: Galitsky part - in 1617, Yamsky - in 1619 - 1624, Thuggish - in 1624 - 1628, Mandative affairs - in 1631 - 1632, the Moscow judgment order - in 1634 - 1638 and in 1639 - 1640 directed building of strengthenings around Moscow, and then headed the Judgment order.
You noticed that several years dropped out? The matter is that Dmitry Mikhaylovich served 1628 - 1630 as a voivode in Novgorod. And Pozharsky crossed swords in 1618 when Poles tried to break through to Moscow from Mozhaisk to the king`s son Vladyslav to whom he once swore.
Dmitry Mikhaylovich died on April 30, 1642 (according to other data on April 20). He is buried in Suzdal. And three centuries later its tomb from pure marble was sorted. The stone went for facing of walls of Moscow Metro under construction … But was held by
the prince Dmitry Pozharskom not only in the monument decorating the Red Square in remembrance. On November 4 became a holiday of a consent and reconciliation. On old style it was on October 22. Day when the Polish garrison of the Kremlin was given …