What is the Russian surname interesting by?
Each modern person has the surname today. Besfamilnykh of people, as they say, is not present. Meanwhile, existence of a surname for us is so habitual, self-evident that we somehow also do not think that we know of a surname in general … to
Word “ surname “ - Latin origin. In the Roman Empire it belonged not to a family (spouses, children) but only to slaves. Understood set of the dependent people belonging to one person as a surname. In our country surnames were entered by the law in 16 - m a century at first for princes and boyars, then for noblemen and eminent merchants. Among peasants of a surname began to be used only after cancellation of a serfdom. Often they just registered under a surname of the former owners.
Only to 19 - mu to a century the word “ surname “ in Russian gained the second value which became official and the main today. In S. I. Ojegov`s dictionary the following interpretation of this word is given: “ The Surname - the hereditary family name added to the personal name “.
As is written by the researcher Unbegaun B. - O., “ The Russian surnames are usually formed from personal names, that is, the names given to this or that person - concern to them as baptismal names (the names received at a baptism), and the nicknames given to the person by his profession, the place of residence or any other signs “ (“ Russian surnames “: The lane with English M., 1995).
For example, Sergey → Sergeyev son → Sergeyev, Don → Don son → Donskoy etc. Schemes of formation of surnames by the nature of occupations and to other signs are less productive though they also take place. In this regard the Russian tradition does not differ from traditions of other European people. Including an origin and rate of the use, the called book can get acquainted with the detailed analysis of the Russian surnames in above.
Female and man`s surnames.
Russian has the developed morphology. The aspiration to designate each semantic category a special sign is inherent in it. The Russian surnames in the form of nouns or adjectives can incline both in the only thing, and in plural, that is, can change the terminations according to a case. Many surnames, thus, have a huge number of various forms, and each of them possesses the full lawful status. In this regard the Russian family form differs from a strict, invariable and uniform family form in the non Slavic world.
In many Slavic languages including Russian, female surnames, as a rule, differ from man`s. For example, Ivanov - Ivanov, but Ivanchuk (he) is Ivanchuk (it) etc. The reason of it is in morphological features of language as systems.
At last, in the Russian surnames the accent is changeable that is one more formal sign about which it is impossible to forget. So, for example, two formally identical Russian surnames with a different accent are two various surnames. Without knowing the correct statement of an accent in a surname of the stranger, it is recommended to be asked again since it is very easy to offend and touch with incorrect pronouncing the person. Someone perceives it quite normally, another is brought, as they say, about a floor - a turn.
Meanwhile, in some languages, for example, in Lithuanian, surnames have various forms for married and unmarried women. And still surnames are not an obligatory element of a full name of the person. For example, in surname Icelandic in habitual understanding of this word are not used. In the Spanish-speaking countries double surnames are used. The first part - from a surname of the father, the second - from a surname of mother. In Portuguese-speaking similar surnames are also used, but the order of the use is directly opposite to Spanish: 1 - I am part - from a surname of mother, 2 - I - from the father.
The appeal of the Russian person to double surnames was initially caused by not final establishment of patrimonial pro-ranks. As the researcher Superanskaya A. in the work " writes; Double surnames “: “ On the one hand each family was allocated from the general sort, with another - kept for communication with odnorodets and a patrimonial pro-rank. When family pro-ranks were finalized, double surnames began to disappear (the end of XV - the beginning of the 16th century) “ .
It is remarkable that the Moscow sovereigns did not love double surnames. For example, the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich forbade to be written by Romodanovsky as the senior in a family of princes Starodubsky their general patrimonial pro-rank. The prince Grigory Grigoryevich Romodanovsky addressed about it the tsar: “ Knyazishki we Starodubovsky And my, both the father, and the uncle were written Starodubskiye - Romodanovskiye... Umiloserdis, did not conduct at me our old chestishka to take away... “
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