What quality of knowledge and how abilities at children develop depends on?
None of you, dear readers, of course, will not begin to deny obvious truth that quality of knowledge can be a miscellaneous. About abilities of the child judge by ease of mastering new material, by use of already acquired knowledge in new conditions, by ability to independently solve problems. Means, quality of knowledge depends on features of that activity in which they are used, and from that, this knowledge how volume joins in different types of activity.
Ask the child: “ Why you study? “. The first grader can answer you: “ Because the father and mother " so want; or “ Because it is pleasant to me “ but children are more senior will explain that study to acquire knowledge. And here knowledge - that can also be different: it is possible to learn a formula and not to be able to apply it, it is possible to know the rule, but to be confused in its use, it is possible to learn by heart definition of concept, but not to distinguish objects, to it relating.
You, for certain, know, dear readers that almost each ability has the optimum age. The abilities, for example, connected with assimilation of a foreign language are best of all formed till seven years, that is oral speech can easily be acquired by the child in kindergarten. Development of the general abilities in game activity is characteristic of the same age. Game at this age very serious occupation - in it the kid develops and prepares for educational activity.
At preschool age it is possible to form successfully abilities and in initial mathematics, but not from mechanical storing of the account (“ Count, the friend, the fingers, adding on one “) and from concepts of number, a measure, size, level, transformation of contours of geometrical figures. For anybody presently not a secret that children to whom it was paid much attention have the high level of abilities generally and training in special techniques before receipt in school was provided. Conditions in which they are formed, and also knowledge, for what age are important for development of abilities there is a prevailing activity.
Kindergarten teachers often allocate children with such characteristics as “ bright “ “ judicious “ “ slowcoach “ reflecting, as a rule, not their abilities, but the general development of psychological functions, speeches, activities which is shown till five years. The teachers who are engaged in purposeful development of abilities of school students are quickly convinced that almost all children who do not have medical pathology possess various potential abilities and it is only necessary to develop them in various creativity interesting to children.
For successful development of abilities of children matters who with them is engaged, knowledge adult tutors of ways of the solution of theoretical and practical tasks. These ways are generalized, becoming links of abilities. In school practice distinguish two concepts: proficiency and learning ability. Proficiency is a certain level of knowledge of various events. Learning ability represents property of the identity of the child which is characterized as skill. Skill in the course of training at base of natural prerequisites is formed, formed as a result of generalization of various abilities and characterized by such properties as sharpness of perception, memory, mobility of activity and so on.
Whether you, dear readers know that owing to an inattention of teachers to formation of learning ability there can be a paradoxical phenomenon when at further increase of knowledge, skills, abilities there can be a relative delay of growth of abilities of children and their intellectual forces, especially regarding generalization and application of knowledge in practice. It is very important to induce children to independent activity, to teach them to resolve independently various issues. And it is necessary to do it not only at school, but also at home.
It is conventional that abilities are formed in activity, in it the child learns himself, own opportunities, adapts the forces for its requirements, forms in himself missing properties. Therefore activity can be considered how a source, a factor of formation and development of abilities. The child by tests opens new options, develops skill, characteristic of it, in which are summarized historical and personal experience.
Be not under a delusion about special endowments and training in special programs. If the child has no enthusiasm and creative approach to performance of tasks if the teacher is not able to apply the developing methods of training and not only from - for the level of pedagogical preparation, but also from - for personal features, then high self-esteem can overtake the valid development and there will be a conflict between the level of claims and real progress. Any temporary decrease in intellectual functions can be perceived as loss of endowments and to cause uneasiness.
Abilities of the person divide into the general and special, and the difference between them consists that special are connected with concrete specific areas. The general abilities help the person with any area. These abilities also should be developed it is comprehensive and thoroughly. Abilities of organizational, search character, ability to logical thinking and so on concern to them.
If instead of reasonings only memory is used, then children do not acquire concept of number, do not distinguish properties of volume and level. When training children for studying of language and the letter parents try to teach children to distinguish as soon as possible letters and to write separate words, without having taught their sound analysis of words, and it is a basis and readings, and the competent letter. It is important not to forget that the wrong beginning in training can interfere with development of abilities.
It is possible to specify some conditions for successful formation of abilities at children.
First - knowledge of opportunities of the child in various objects of training, definition of a level of development of its general and special abilities, ratios of proficiency and learning ability,
Second - a training combination to development of practical abilities: technical, pedagogical, organizing and others,
Third - education of active lines: independence, initiative, organization, persistence, diligence, criticality.
Do not forget, dear readers that abilities can unevenly develop, and quite often temporary stagnation is replaced by the accelerated development. Take care also the children, help to develop their endowments.