Why - the paleontologist Efremov so pulled the scientist on a fantasy?
are on April 22 100 years since the birth of Ivan Antonovich Efremov, the scientist who left us such remarkable books as “ Fog Andromedy “ “ " razor Edge; “ Hour of the Bull “ and many other works which allowed to glance in the far future … What it was remembered by
to contemporaries? Physically strong person practicing boxing. The erudite knowing by heart all Bryusov and Blok, pages quoting Green and Doyle. Geologist and zoologist, traveler and philosopher, owner of a beautiful bass and perfect ear. The one who told about science fiction it is extraordinary juicy: “ The Science fiction is a foam on a surface of the sea of science. The legend says that from foam sea and star light Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty was born. The fantasy has to become Aphrodite, but if light of the star sky does not reach it, foam will accumulate on the coast a dirty spot “.
The story about Efremov needs to be begun with a historical incident. The matter is that, according to the register of births, Ivan was born in 1908, but still the boy he “ rewrote “ date of birth for a year, and since then in all biographies was specified by 1907.
Efremov` Family, thanks to the fact that the father was a lumberman did not need means, they had a library for those times smart so Ivan, having hardly learned to read, instead of Andersen, Perrault, brothers Grimm and other storytellers, to a descent undertook Jules Verne. And by six years re-read practically everything that was available in library. It was necessary to undertake Raphael Sabatini and other masters of a feather in whose works romanticism of voyages and opening of new lands was sung.
World War I and the revolution which followed it led to the fact that Ivan`s parents left, mother married the red commander and was wound across Russia together with him, having left three children on care of the aunt who soon died of typhus. And the boy was beaten to one of Red Army parts, with it he reached the Recop. And after the end of war 13 - the summer teenager independently reaches Petrograd where, unlike most of homeless children, finds all the time for training at school from which he brilliantly graduates for incomplete three years.
And study for the navigator of coasting swimming, work as the sailor was farther during navigation on the Far East. Again study, this time at biological faculty of the Leningrad university. In 28 years Ivan Efremov becomes Candidate of Biology, during the same period he without attending lectures takes examinations in the Leningrad mining institute and receives profession of the mine foreman. But in the city on Neva does not remain though it was invited to teach at institute. Its way lies to Moscow, in paleontologic higher education institution.
In fifteen years, till 1941, Ivan Efremov participates in tens of paleontologic and geological expeditions across the Volga region, the Urals, Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia. Each of these expeditions at least a small stroke, but surely will be included into future books of the scientist - the writer.
But at the end of 30 - x years to it yet not to books. Together with A. Bystrov Efremov works on the monograph devoted to an eotriasovy labirintodont. This work did not remain unnoticed - the English Linnean society awards authors of honourable diplomas, and Efremov in the spring of 1941 defends the doctoral dissertation in biology.
In difficult military years Ivan Antonovich works on development of the new direction in the Soviet science - a tafonomiya, but results of works manage to be published after war, in 1950 - m. And, all theoretical questions were fulfilled by the scientist in practice during three expeditions to the Mongolian Gobi Desert in 1946, 1948 and 1949. For development of a tafonomiya Efremov gets the State (Stalin) award. And in parallel with reports on expedition Efremov writes the first documentary story - “ Road of the " winds;.
This first story - a peculiar prolog, because in the Mongolian desert in time “ hunting behind bones of dragons “ at Ivan Antonovich the plan of the book which will connect by the bridge our terrestrial existence with the worlds which lie within Space is born. Without thinking twice, Efremov is accepted to this book, and in 1957 “ Fog Andromedy “ it is published by small circulation.
the Book not indisputable, but in it is a latent question: whether and we build the correct society? Whether there will be in it a place of original openness, democracy and to the other " attributes; free “ world?
The second book of Efremov - “ " razor Edge; left is much later, draws to us ways of creation of the best society. And again they “ are too far “ from the Soviet reality.
About the third novel - “ Hour of the Bull “ - still there are disputes. One argue furiously that it is a caricature to the USSR, others, protecting ideological searches of Efremov, say that here one of options of development of society is shown. And many call this work the novel - the prevention in which the writer warns about the threatening social, environmental and moral disaster. We were convinced that Efremov was not far from truth considerably later.
But anyway - the novel was withdrawn from all Soviet libraries, and for long 18 years is forbidden to reprinting.
Unfortunately, Ivan Antonovich did not live to “ rehabilitations “ the last novel. He died on October 5, 1972.
And boys read its books to holes. “ Fog Andromedy “ I read in a night, and know, I was simply shocked by that world “ - the astronaut Vladimir Dzhanibekov told many years later.
The fantasy is the peculiar microscope allowing to look fixedly to those worlds which are inaccessible with the naked eye. And Ivan Efremov understood it still the boy. And on whatever tops of scientific knowledge he got, the scientist did not forget to light a torch. That people knew: in life there is always what it is necessary to aspire to …